Mol Biol Rep. 2019 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s11033-019-04794-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Potential risk factors of ovarian cancer and analysis of CA125, a biomarker used for its monitoring and diagnosis.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fourth most common cancer among Pakistani, Scottish and Chinese women. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of potential risk factors with OC and analysis of Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) in its monitoring and diagnosis. A total of 200 patients diagnosed with OC were included in this study. All the patients were interviewed and 54 OC patients (case group) and 35 age-matched healthy subjects (control group) gave their blood for analysis of CA125. The blood of case and control groups was subjected to an ELISA test for the evaluation of CA125 levels. Majority of the patients were of 40-50 years of age and most of the patients were diagnosed at this period of life. The majority of the patients experienced their first menarche and menopause at the age of 13-14 and 40-50 years respectively. There is no significant association between early menarche and OC family history, nor between late menopause and OC family history. There is a significant association between family history of breast cancer (BC) and age of menarche (P = 0.005). An OC patient with an age of menarche of 13 years or younger has 2.8 times the odds of having a family history of BC than those whose age of menarche is more than 13 years. Eleven percent of patients diagnosed with OC received no intervention. All other patients underwent treatment options including hysterectomy (69.5%), radiotherapy (39%) and chemotherapy (95%). The profiles of the patients showed that those who had a family history of OC were more likely to provide blood samples (OR = 3.87, P = 0.025), and similarly for those with a history of breast cancer (OR = 2.83, P = 0.022) in comparison to those who were not willing to provide blood for testing of biomarker. The distribution of CA125 for OC patients and control group showed that CA125 values were significantly higher (P = 0.034) in the case patients compared with the control group. The decrease in CA125 levels indicated the positive response to treatment, whereas increase in CA125 values showed resistant and disease progression. 52% of the patients with OC were correctly diagnosed as having OC (based on the optimal cut-point of CA125), while 83% of those without OC were also correctly diagnosed (with 48% of OC patients and 17% of non-OC patients incorrectly diagnosed). We concluded that there is significant association between family history of breast cancer and OC history and use of CA125 as a biomarker is not an ideal diagnostic and monitoring test as it has low sensitivity and high specificity.
CA125; Chemotherapy; ELISA; Ovarian cancer (OC); Sensitivity