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Using Antibodies for Parkinson's Disease Research

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 Parkinson's Disease 
 The latest Parkinson's disease news from News Medical 
 Using Antibodies for Parkinson's Disease ResearchUsing Antibodies for Parkinson's Disease Research
 
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the aggregation of clumps of the alpha-synuclein protein throughout the brain.
 
   Is Appendectomy Linked to Parkinson’s Disease?Is Appendectomy Linked to Parkinson’s Disease?
 
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by resting tremor, bradykinesia, and dyskinesia.
 
   Peripheral Blood Immune Cells in Parkinson’s DiseasePeripheral Blood Immune Cells in Parkinson’s Disease
 
This article investigates the latest research into parkinsons disease.
 
 New family of molecules to join altered receptors in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's
 
New family of molecules to join altered receptors in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington'sAn article shows a new family of molecules with high affinity to join imidazoline receptors, which are altered in the brain of those patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
 
 
 'Natural killer' cells could help stop progression of Parkinson's disease
 
'Natural killer' cells could help stop progression of Parkinson's diseaseResearchers have found that "natural killer" white blood cells could guard against the cascade of cellular changes that lead to Parkinson's disease and help stop its progression.
 
 
 Parkinson's disease may affect brain cells before birth
 
Parkinson's disease may affect brain cells before birthPeople who develop Parkinson's disease before age 50 may have been born with disordered brain cells that went undetected for decades.
 
 
 Scientists discover link between Parkinson's and gene targeted by blue-green algae toxin
 
Scientists discover link between Parkinson's and gene targeted by blue-green algae toxinScientists have discovered a possible link between Parkinson's disease and a gene impacted by a neurotoxin found in blue-green algae.
 
 
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CORRECTED: CDC now recommends hepatitis C testing for all adults and pregnant women

CDC Viral Hepatitis Updates

CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults — United States, 2020

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. HCV is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood, most commonly through injection drug use. No vaccine against hepatitis C exists and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. More than half of persons who become infected with HCV will develop chronic infection. Direct-acting antiviral treatment can result in a virologic cure in most persons with 8–12 weeks of all-oral medication regimens. This report augments (i.e., updates and summarizes) previously published recommendations from CDC regarding testing for HCV infection in the United States with two new recommendations: 

  1. hepatitis C screening at least once in a lifetime for all adults aged ≥18 years, except in settings where the prevalence of HCV infection is < 0.1% and 
  2. hepatitis C screening for all pregnant women during each pregnancy, except in settings where the prevalence of HCV infection is < 0.1%. 

The recommendation for HCV testing that remains unchanged is regardless of age or setting prevalence, all persons with risk factors should be tested for hepatitis C, with periodic testing while risk factors persist. Any person who requests hepatitis C testing should receive it.
CDC Hepatitis C Screening Recommendations


Vital Signs- Dramatic increases in hepatitis C

The annual rate of reported acute hepatitis C tripled from 2009 to 2018 and was highest among persons aged 20–39 years. In 2018, the largest proportion of chronic hepatitis C cases occurred among persons aged 20–39 years and 50–69 years. Only 61% of adults with hepatitis C knew that they were infected. 


Know More Hepatitis Campaign

An estimated 2.4 million Americans are living with hepatitis C, yet many do not know they are infected. Know More Hepatitis campaign encourages all adults to get tested for hepatitis C. 


CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults — United States, 2020 | MMWR

CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults — United States, 2020 | MMWR



CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults — United States, 2020

Sarah Schillie, MD1; Carolyn Wester, MD1; Melissa Osborne, PhD1; Laura Wesolowski, PhD1; A. Blythe Ryerson, PhD1 (View author affiliations)

Clinical Specimens: Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC

Clinical Specimens: Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC



Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing Clinical Specimens from Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Summary of Recent Changes
Revisions were made on April 2, 2020 to reflect the following:
  • Clarify the allowance for other swab types with new data and to align with FDA guidance
Revisions were made on March 24, 2020 to reflect the following:
  • Allowance for self- or healthcare worker-collected nasal swabs as an acceptable specimen type if NP swab is not possible
  • Allowance for self- or healthcare worker-collected nasal turbinate swabs as an acceptable specimen type if NP swab is not possible
  • Updated infection control link to COVID-specific guidance
Revisions were made on March 21, 2020 to reflect the following:
Revisions were made on March 19, 2020 to reflect the following:
  • Allowance for OP swabs as an acceptable specimen type if NP swabs are not available.
  • Standard operating procedure for public health labs to create their own viral transport media pdf icon[5 pages] in accordance with CDC’s protocol.
Revisions were made on March 17, 2020 to reflect the following:
  • Recommendation for collection for testing of lower respiratory tract specimens for testing.
  • Updated description of collecting a NP swab.
Revisions were made on March 13, 2020 to reflect the following:
  • Recommendation to collect and test a single upper respiratory nasopharyngeal (NP).
April 8, 2020
Healthcare providers should contact their local/state health department immediately to notify them of patients with fever and lower respiratory illness who they suspect may have COVID-19. Local and state public health staff will determine if the patient meets the criteria for testing for COVID-19. The state and local health department will assist clinicians to collect, store, and ship specimens appropriately, including during afterhours or on weekends/holidays. Clinical specimens should be collected for routine testing of respiratory pathogens at either clinical or public health labs. Note that clinical laboratories should NOT attempt viral isolation from specimens collected from persons suspected to have COVID-19 unless this is performed in a BSL-3 laboratory. Testing for other pathogens by the provider should be done as part of the initial evaluation but should not delay testing for COVID-19.

Specimen Type and Priority

All testing for COVID-19 should be conducted in consultation with a healthcare provider.  Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs can be used for testing asymptomatic persons in a healthcare setting, including long term care facilities. At this time anterior nares and mid-turbinate specimen collection are only appropriate for symptomatic patients and both nares should be swabbed. The guidance below addresses options for self-collection of specimens once a clinical determination has been made to pursue COVID-19 testing.
For initial diagnostic testing for COVID-19, CDC recommends collecting and testing an upper respiratory specimen. Nasopharyngeal specimen is the preferred choice for swab-based SARS-CoV-2 testing. When collection of a nasopharyngeal swab is not possible, the following are acceptable alternatives:
  • An oropharyngeal (OP) specimen collected by a healthcare professional, or
  • A nasal mid-turbinate (NMT) swab collected by a healthcare professional or by onsite self-collection (using a flocked tapered swab), or
  • An anterior nares (nasal swab; NS) specimen collected by a healthcare professional or by onsite self-collection (using a flocked or spun polyester swab).
For NS, a single polyester swab with a plastic shaft should be used to sample both nares. NS or NMT swabs should be placed in a transport tube containing either viral transport medium, Amies transport medium, or sterile saline.
If both NP and OP swabs both are collected, they should be combined in a single tube to maximize test sensitivity and limit testing resources.
CDC also recommends testing lower respiratory tract specimens, if available. For patients who develop a productive cough, sputum should be collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. The induction of sputum is not recommended. When it is clinically indicated (e.g., those receiving invasive mechanical ventilation), a lower respiratory tract aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage sample should be collected and tested as a lower respiratory tract specimen.
Specimens should be collected as soon as possible once a decision has been made to pursue COVID-19 testing, regardless of the time of symptom onset. Maintain proper infection control when collecting specimens. See Biosafety FAQs for handling and processing specimens from suspected case patients.

General Guidelines

Store specimens at 2-8°C and ship overnight to CDC on ice pack. Label each specimen container with the patient’s ID number (e.g., medical record number), unique specimen ID (e.g., laboratory requisition number), specimen type (e.g., serum) and the date the sample was collected. Complete a CDC Form 50.34 for each specimen submitted. In the upper left box of the form, 1) for test requested select “Respiratory virus molecular detection (non-influenza) CDC-10401” and 2) for At CDC, bring to the attention of enter “Stephen Lindstrom: 2019-nCoV PUI”.

I. Respiratory Specimens

A. Lower respiratory tract

Bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal aspirate
Collect 2-3 mL into a sterile, leak-proof, screw-cap sputum collection cup or sterile dry container.
Sputum
Have the patient rinse the mouth with water and then expectorate deep cough sputum directly into a sterile, leak-proof, screw-cap sputum collection cup or sterile dry container.

B. Upper respiratory tract

Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab/oropharyngeal (OP) swab
Use only synthetic fiber swabs with plastic shafts. Do not use calcium alginate swabs or swabs with wooden shafts, as they may contain substances that inactivate some viruses and inhibit PCR testing. Place swabs immediately into sterile tubes containing 2-3 mL of viral transport media.  In general CDC is now recommending collecting only the NP swab.  If both swabs are used, NP and OP specimens should be combined at collection into a single vial. OP swabs remain an acceptable specimen type.
Nasopharyngeal swab: Insert a swab into nostril parallel to the palate. Swab should reach depth equal to distance from nostrils to outer opening of the ear. Leave swab in place for several seconds to absorb secretions. Slowly remove swab while rotating it.
Oropharyngeal swab (e.g., throat swab): Swab the posterior pharynx, avoiding the tongue.
Nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate or nasal aspirate
Collect 2-3 mL into a sterile, leak-proof, screw-cap sputum collection cup or sterile dry container.

II. Storage

Store specimens at 2-8°C for up to 72 hours after collection. If a delay in testing or shipping is expected, store specimens at -70°C or below.

III. Shipping

Specimens must be packaged, shipped, and transported according to the current edition of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulationsexternal iconexternal iconexternal icon. Store specimens at 2-8°C and ship overnight to CDC on ice pack. If a specimen is frozen at -70°C ship overnight to CDC on dry ice. Additional useful and detailed information on packing, shipping, and transporting specimens can be found at Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
For additional information, consultation, or the CDC shipping address, contact the CDC Emergency Operations Center (EOC) at 770-488-7100.

CDC’s role in helping cruise ship travelers during the COVID-19 pandemic | CDC

CDC’s role in helping cruise ship travelers during the COVID-19 pandemic | CDC



CDC’s role in helping cruise ship travelers during the COVID-19 pandemic

As of April 4, 2020, CDC has updated its recommendations to help US cruise ship travelers (passengers and crew) get home as quickly and safely as possible during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • CDC is working with partners as part of the Unified Command, including Coast Guard, Customs and Border Protection, port authorities, local and state health departments, and Department of State, to respond to COVID-19 aboard cruise ships.
  • CDC recommends that cruise ship travelers with no symptoms or mild symptoms disembark as quickly and safely as possible at US ports of entry:
    • Cruise line companies must get travelers directly to their homes via chartered or private transportation.
    • Commercial flights and public transportation may not be used.
  • Since February 2020, travelers on dozens of cruise ships have been affected by COVID-19 outbreaks. Cruise ships are often settings for outbreaks of infectious diseases because of the semi-enclosed environment and contact between travelers from many countries.
  • Outbreaks of COVID-19 on cruise ships pose a risk for rapid spread of disease beyond the voyage. Aggressive efforts are required to contain spread.
  • CDC realizes that it might be confusing for travelers when recommendations change during the COVID-19 pandemic response. The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and globally is constantly changing. We will continue to evaluate and update our recommendations for returning cruise ship travelers as the situation evolves.

For Returning Cruise Ship Travelers

For Returning Cruise Ship Travelers

Well Travelers

  • Before leaving your cabin to begin ship disembarkation, put on a face mask or cloth face covering issued to you by the cruise line. Keep the face covering on from the time you leave your cabin, during disembarkation and during all air and land travel. To the extent possible, do not remove the face covering until you get to your final destination.
  • You should only travel with other well travelers by chartered or private transportation. Do not board a commercial flight or other public transportation.
  • While traveling, you should spread out if space allows (6 feet apart from non-travel companions, if possible). Sit next to your cruise ship travel companion(s) if you’re traveling with someone.
  • If you develop symptoms during travel, notify the medical staff of your symptoms and continue to wear your cloth face covering. If you are on a chartered flight without medical staff, tell the CDC Quarantine Station staff as soon as you disembark the plane.
  • When you arrive at your final destination, you should stay home for 14 days and monitor your health.

Travelers who are Ill

  • Before leaving your cabin, put on a face mask issued to you by the cruise line.
    • Keep the mask on from the time you leave your cabin, during disembarkation and during all air and land travel.
    • To the extent possible, do not remove the mask until you get to your final destination.
  • If you have symptoms of COVID-19 or have confirmed COVID-19, do not travel with well travelers who have no symptoms. Cabin mates with no symptoms may accompany you if they provide written consent to the cruise line ahead of time.
  • If you are well enough to travel, you should only travel to your home by charter flight, air ambulance, or ground ambulance, or another private vehicle that can be properly sanitized.
  • Your cruise line is responsible for your medical care. If you require emergency medical attention, your cruise line will coordinate with public health and U.S. Coast Guard and, if necessary, arrange for appropriate transportation to a place where you can get attention.

For Cruise Ship Companies

  • Cruise lines are responsible for treating all ill or infected patients, including those who need hospitalization.
  • For travelers who need emergency medical attention, cruise lines should coordinate with public health and U.S. Coast Guard to arrange for appropriate transportation to a place where such care can occur.
  • Cruise lines must arrange for disembarking travelers with no symptoms or mild symptoms to return directly to their residence by chartered or private transportation that can be properly sanitized. Commercial flights and other public transportation may not be used.
    • Travelers with mild symptoms may return home alone or with other symptomatic travelers by charter flight, air ambulance, ground ambulance or other private vehicle that can be properly sanitized. Cabin mates with no symptoms may accompany ill travelers if they provide written consent to the cruise line ahead of time.
    • Well travelers with no symptoms may return home alone or with other well travelers by charter flight or other private vehicle that can be properly sanitized.
  • Cruise ship companies should provide to all travelers, including crew, a procedural/surgical mask, cloth face covering, or non-medical mask such as a bandanna, and ask them to wear it during:
    • ship disembarkation,
    • transport to any flights,
    • the duration of the flight(s), and
    • any ground transportation until they reach their final destination.
  • Cruise ship companies should NOT be distributing N-95 respirator masks to passengers or crew.

Before attempting to repatriate travelers by international charter flight to the United States

  • Before chartering flights back to the United States, cruise lines should:
    • Screen all US-bound passengers or crew who will board the US charter flight for fever (100.4° F or 38° C or higher) or feeling feverish or new or worsening cough, or shortness of breath. Symptomatic passengers should not board a charter flight with well passengers.
    • Notify CDC about any passengers with COVID-19 symptoms, including confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases.
    • Obtain full approval from state and local authorities before planning for the arrival of passengers in the state where the charter flight is bound.
    • Distribute general CDC COVID-19 health informationpdf icon to cruise ship passengers eligible to board a US-bound flight. Advise passengers to stay home, monitor their health, and practice social distancing for 14 days after they arrive in the United States.
    • Ensure the air carrier has stocked sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) for the flight crew.

For public health officials

  • The Department of State, with approval from the Department of Homeland Security, decides whether to allow chartered international flights to return with cruise ship passengers to the United States.
  • It is required that flights report to CDC any illnesses and deaths on domestic flights between US states and territories and on international flights arriving in the United States. If illnesses or deaths were reported on the flight, local airport responders will coordinate with the CDC Quarantine Station of jurisdiction to ensure safe assessment of the affected traveler.
  • CDC may notify some states through Epi-X about sick passengers on flights under some circumstances.

Cruise Ships Affected by COVID-19

These are cruise ships that had voyages with US ports, which are under US CDC jurisdiction. International voyages without US ports of call are not under CDC jurisdiction and not included.
Cruise Ships Affected by COVID-19
Ship nameVoyage Start DateVoyage End Date
Carnival Imagination5-Mar8-Mar
Carnival Valor29-Feb5-Mar
Carnival Valor5-Mar9-Mar
Carnival Valor9-Mar14-Mar
Carnival Vista15-Feb22-Feb
Carnival Vista29-Feb7-Mar
Celebrity Infinity5-Mar9-Mar
Celebrity Eclipse*2-Mar30-Mar
Celebrity Reflection13-Mar17-Mar
Celebrity Summit29-Feb7-Mar
Crown Princess6-Mar16-Mar
Disney Wonder28-Feb2-Mar
Disney Wonder*6-Mar20-Mar
Grand Princess11-Feb21-Feb
Grand Princess*21-Feb7-Mar
MSC Meraviglia1-Mar8-Mar
Norwegian Bliss*1-Mar8-Mar
Norwegian Bliss8-Mar15-Mar
Norwegian Breakaway29-Feb7-Mar
Norwegian Breakaway*7-Mar14-Mar
Norwegian Pride of America*29-Feb7-Mar
Oceania Riviera*26-Feb11-Mar
RCCL Explorer of Seas8-Mar15-Mar
RCCL Liberty of the Seas*15-Mar29-Mar
RCCL Majesty of the Seas*29-Feb7-Mar
RCCL Oasis of the Seas*8-Mar15-Mar
RCCL Symphony of the Seas*7-Mar14-Mar
*CDC was notified about COVID-19-positive travelers who had symptoms while on board these ships.
For all other ships, CDC was notified about travelers who had symptoms and tested positive for COVID-19 within 14 days after disembarking. Since these travelers’ symptoms began after the voyage, the traveler might have contracted COVID-19 during the voyage; however, other sources of transmission after the voyage cannot be ruled out.

Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings | CDC

Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings | CDC



Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings

Summary of Recent Changes
Revisions were made on April 4, 2020, to reflect the following:
Guidance has been updated to clarify the following:
  • Considerations related to visitors and essential support persons to pregnant women who have known or suspected COVID-19 infection
  • Prioritized testing of pregnant women with suspected COVID-19 at admission or who develop symptoms of COVID-19 during admission
  • Testing of infants with suspected COVID-19 and isolation from other healthy infants
  • Determination of whether to keep a mother with known or suspected COVID-19 and her infant together or separated after birth on a case-by-case basis, using shared decision-making between the mother and the clinical team
These infection prevention and control considerations are for healthcare facilities providing obstetric care for pregnant patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) or pregnant persons under investigation (PUI) in inpatient obstetric healthcare settings including obstetrical triage, labor and delivery, recovery and inpatient postpartum settings.
This information is intended to aid hospitals and clinicians in applying broader CDC interim guidance on infection control (Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) or Persons Under Investigation for COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings).
Since maternity and newborn care units vary in physical configuration, each facility should consider their appropriate space and staffing needs to prevent transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. These considerations include appropriate isolation of pregnant patients who have confirmed COVID-19 or are PUIs; basic and refresher training for all healthcare personnel on those units to include correct adherence to infection control practices and personal protective equipment (PPE) use and handling; sufficient and appropriate PPE supplies positioned at all points of care; and processes to protect newborns from risk of COVID-19.
These considerations are based upon the limited evidence available to date about transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19, and knowledge of other viruses that cause severe respiratory illness including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The approaches outlined below are intentionally cautious until additional data become available to refine recommendations for prevention of person-to-person transmission in inpatient obstetric care settings.

Prehospital Considerations

  • Pregnant patients with known or suspected COVID-19 should notify the obstetric unit prior to arrival so the facility can make appropriate infection control preparations such as identifying the most appropriate room for labor and delivery, ensuring infection prevention and control supplies and PPE are correctly positioned, and informing and training all healthcare personnel who will be involved in the patient’s care of infection control expectations before the patient’s arrival.
  • If a pregnant patient who has confirmed COVID-19 or is a PUI is arriving via transport by emergency medical services, the driver should contact the receiving emergency department or healthcare facility and follow previously agreed-upon local or regional transport protocols. For more information refer to the Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) for COVID-19 in the United States.
  • Healthcare providers should promptly notify infection control personnel at their facility of the anticipated arrival of a pregnant patient who has confirmed COVID-19 or is a PUI.

During Hospitalization

  • All healthcare facilities that provide obstetric care must ensure that their personnel are correctly trained and capable of implementing recommended infection control interventions. Individual healthcare personnel should ensure they understand and can adhere to infection control requirements.
  • Healthcare facilities providing inpatient obstetrical care should limit visitors to pregnant women who have known or suspected COVID-19 infections.
    • Visitors should be limited to those essential for the pregnant woman’s well-being and care (emotional support persons).
      • Depending upon the extent of community-transmission, institutions may consider limiting visitors to one essential support person and having that person be the same individual throughout the hospitalization.
      • Use of alternative mechanisms for patient and visitor interactions, such as video-call applications, can be encouraged for any additional support persons.
    • Any visitors permitted to labor and delivery should be screened for symptoms of acute respiratory illness and should not be allowed entry if fever or respiratory symptoms are present.
    • Visitors should be informed about use of masks (including cloth masks) for any person entering the healthcare facility and about appropriate use of personal protective equipment according to current facility visitor policy. Additionally, visitors should be instructed to only visit the patient room and should not go to other locations within the facility, including any newborn nursery.
  • Pregnant women admitted with suspected COVID-19 or who develop symptoms concerning for suspected COVID-19 during admission should be prioritized for testing.
  • Infants born to a pregnant woman with suspected COVID-19 for whom testing is unknown (either pending results or not tested) are NOT considered to be infants with suspected COVID-19.
  • Infants born to mothers with known COVID-19 at the time of delivery should be considered infants with suspected COVID-19. As such, infants with suspected COVID-19 should be isolated from other healthy infants, and cared for according to the Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19.

Mother/Baby Contact

The many benefits of mother/infant skin-to-skin contact are well understood for mother-infant bonding, increased likelihood of breastfeeding, stabilization of glucose levels, and maintaining infant body temperature and though transmission of SARS-CoV-2 after birth via contact with infectious respiratory secretions is a concern, the risk of transmission and the clinical severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants are not clear.
The determination of whether or not to separate a mother with known or suspected COVID-19 and her infant should be made on a case-by-case basis using shared decision-making between the mother and the clinical team. Considerations in this decision include:
  • The clinical condition of the mother and of the infant
  • SARS-CoV-2 testing results of mother (confirmed vs. suspected) and infant (a positive infant test would negate the need to separate)
  • Desire to feed at the breast
  • Facility capacity to accommodate separation or colocation
  • The ability to maintain separation upon discharge
  • Other risks and benefits of temporary separation of a mother with known or suspected COVID-19 and her infant
If separation is not undertaken, other measures to reduce the risk of transmission from mother to infant could include the following, again, utilizing shared decision-making:
  • Using engineering controls like physical barriers (e.g., a curtain between the mother and newborn) and keeping the newborn ≥6 feet away from the mother.
  • Mothers who choose to feed at the breast should put on a face mask and practice hand hygiene before each feeding.
  • If the mother is not breastfeeding and no other healthy adult is present in the room to care for the newborn, a mother with known or suspected COVID-19 should put on a face mask and practice hand hygiene1 before each feeding or other close contact with her newborn.
  • The facemask should remain in place during contact with the newborn. These practices should continue while the mother is on Transmission-Based Precautions in a healthcare facility.
If the decision is made to temporarily put the mother with known or suspected COVID-19 and her infant to reduce the risk of transmission in separate rooms, the following should be considered:

Breastfeeding

  • If temporary separation is undertaken, mothers who intend to breastfeed should be encouraged to express their breast milk to establish and maintain milk supply. If possible, a dedicated breast pump should be provided. Prior to expressing breast milk, mothers should practice hand hygiene.1 After each pumping session, all parts that come into contact with breast milk should be thoroughly washed and the entire pump should be appropriately disinfected per the manufacturer’s instructions. This expressed breast milk should be fed to the newborn by a healthy caregiver.
  • If a mother with known or suspected COVID-19 and her infant do room-in and the mother wishes to feed at the breast, she should put on a face mask and practice hand hygiene before each feeding.

Footnote:

1 Hand hygiene includes use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains 60% to 95% alcohol before and after all patient contact, contact with potentially infectious material, and before putting on and upon removal of PPE, including gloves. Hand hygiene can also be performed by washing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If hands are visibly soiled, use soap and water before returning to alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Additional resources: