MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for June 9, 2016
Electronic Cigarette Use among Working Adults — United States, 2014
Overall, 3.8 percent of US working adults use e-cigarettes. Prevalence of use varies by sociodemographic characteristics, by industry, and by occupation. An estimated 5.5 million working Americans currently use electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey show the highest use of e-cigs by workers was among males, non-Hispanic whites, adults ages 18–24 years, people with an annual household income below $35,000, and people without health insurance. The study also found e-cigarette use was highest among workers in the accommodation and food services industry and in food preparation and serving-related occupations. Many workers who use e-cigarettes every day or some days reported they also used conventional tobacco products: 16.2 percent were current cigarette smokers, 15 percent other combustible tobacco users, and 9.7 percent smokeless tobacco users.
Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV — Thailand, 2015
Thailand has achieved World Health Organization elimination of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) targets and can serve as a model for other countries. Thailand experienced a generalized HIV epidemic in the 1990s. HIV prevalence among pregnant women was 2.0 percent and the MTCT rate was more than 20 percent. In June 2016, Thailand became the first country in Asia to validate the elimination of MTCT by meeting World Health Organization (WHO) targets. These results have been achieved through a sustained nationwide effort involving the government, the medical community, non-governmental organizations, and civil society. Thailand’s experience implementing a successful MTCT-prevention program might be instructive for other countries.
Influenza Activity — United States, 2015–16 Season and Composition of the 2016–17 Influenza Vaccine
Influenza vaccination remains the most effective way to prevent influenza illness and its associated complications. Although influenza viruses typically circulate at low levels during the summer months, timely empiric antiviral treatment is recommended for patients with severe, complicated, or progressive influenza illness and those at higher risk for influenza complications. Treatment can be considered for others if it can be started within 48 hours of illness onset. During the 2015–16 U.S. influenza season influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses predominated overall, with influenza B viruses, and, to a lesser extent, influenza A (H3N2) viruses co-circulating. It was a less severe season overall compared with the previous three seasons, with influenza activity starting later and continuing longer. Overall influenza activity was moderate with a lower percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness, lower hospitalization rates, and a lower percentage of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza compared with the previous three seasons. Antigenic and genetic characterization showed that most of the circulating viruses were well-matched to the 2015–16 Northern Hemisphere vaccine, resulting in good vaccine effectiveness.
Notes from the Field:
- Intoxication and Deaths Associated with Ingestion of a Racing Fuel and Carbonated Soft Drink Mixture — Tennessee, January 2016
- Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy — United States, 2014