Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Oct 16;5:141. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00141. eCollection 2018.
Precision Healthcare of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Through Implementation of Haptoglobin Genotyping.
It is well-recognized that there is a need for medicine to migrate to a platform of delivering preventative care based on an individual's geneticmake-up. The US National Research Council, the National Institute of Health and the American Heart Association all support the concept of utilizing genomic information to enhance the clinical management of patients. It is believed this type of precision healthcare will revolutionize health management. This current attitude of some of the most respected institutes in healthcare sets the stage for the utilization of the haptoglobin (Hp) genotype to guide precision management in type 2 diabetics (DM). There are three main Hp genotypes: 1-1, 2-1, 2-2. The Hp genotype has been studied extensively in (DM) and from the accumulated data it is clear that Hp should be considered in all DM patients as an additional independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. In DM patients Hp2-2 generates five times increased risk of CVD compared to Hp1-1 and three times increased risk compared to Hp2-1. Data has also shown that carrying the Hp2-2 gene in DM compared to carrying an Hp1-1 genotype can increase the risk the microvascular complications of nephropathy and retinopathy. In addition, the Hp2-2 gene enhances post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) complications such as, in stent restenosis and need for additional revascularization during the first-year post PCI. Studies have demonstrated significant mitigation of CVD risk in Hp2-2 DM patients with administration of vitamin E and maintaining tight glycemic control. CVD is the leading cause of death and disability in DM as well-representing a huge financial burden. As such, evaluating the Hp genotype in DM patients can enhance the predictability and management of CVD risk.
cardiovascular disease; diabetes; genetics; haptoglobin; inflammation; precision healthcare; stroke; vitamin E