BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Open Peer Review reports
Antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs in the anterior cingulate cortex is mediated via endogenous opioid mechanism
BMC Pharmacology and ToxicologyBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201819:2
© The Author(s). 2018
- Published: 6 January 2018
In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. Given this evidence, in this study we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac and xefocam microinjected into the rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rats.
Male Wistar experimental and control (saline) rats were implanted with a guide cannula in the ACC and tested for antinociception following microinjection of NSAIDs into the ACC in the tail-flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests. Repeated measures of analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests were used for statistical evaluations.
Treatment with each NSAID significantly enhanced the TF and HP latencies on the first day, followed by a progressive decrease in the analgesic effect over a 4-day period, i.e., developed tolerance. Pretreatment with an opioid antagonist naloxone completely prevented the analgesic effects of the three NSAIDs in both behavioral assays.
These findings support the concept that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory systems.
- Endogenous opioids
- Descending modulation
- Non-opioid tolerance