Family history (FH) and genetic risk scores (GRSs) are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.
A total of 316 cases (13.4%) and 214 controls (9.7%) had a first-degree relative (FDR) with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52-2.29). A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24-4.02) compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their joint consideration provided more accurate risk stratification than risk stratification based on each of the variables individually. For example, risk was 6.1-fold increased in the presence of both FH in a FDR and a GRS in the highest decile (aOR 6.14, 95% CI 3.47-10.84) compared to persons without FH and a GRS in the lowest decile.
Both FH and the so far identified genetic variants carry essentially independent risk information and in combination provide great potential for CRC risk stratification.
colorectal neoplasms; common genetic variants; familial risk; single-nucleotide polymorphisms
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