Sex-specific influence on cardiac structural remodeling and therapy in cardiovascular disease
Biology of Sex Differences201910:7
© The Author(s). 2019
- Published: 4 February 2019
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) culminating into heart failure (HF) are major causes of death in men and women. Prevalence and manifestation, however, differ between sexes, since men mainly present with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and post-menopausal women predominantly present with hypertension. These discrepancies are probably influenced by underlying genetic and molecular differences in structural remodeling pathways involved in hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. In general, men mainly develop eccentric forms, while women develop concentric forms of hypertrophy. Besides that, women show less inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis upon HF. This seems to emerge, at least partially, from the fact that the underlying pathways might be modulated by estrogen, which changes after menopause due to declining of the estrogen levels.
In this review, sex-dependent alterations in adverse cardiac remodeling are discussed for various CVDs. Moreover, potential therapeutic options, like estrogen treatment, are reviewed.
- Cardiovascular disease