martes, 26 de febrero de 2019

Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®) 8/8 —Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Translocation-positive carcinomas of the kidney are recognized as a distinct form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and may be the most common form of RCC in children, accounting for 40% to 50% of pediatric RCC.[76] In a Children's Oncology Group (COG) prospective clinical trial of 120 childhood and adolescent patients with RCC, nearly one-half of patients had translocation-positive RCC.[77] These carcinomas are characterized by translocations involving the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3) located on Xp11.2. The TFE3 gene may partner with one of the following genes:
  • ASPSCR in t(X;17)(p11.2;q25).
  • PRCC in t(X;1)(p11.2;q21).
  • SFPQ in t(X;1)(p11.2;p34).
  • NONO in inv(X;p11.2;q12).
  • Clathrin heavy chain (CLTC) in t(X;17)(p11;q23).
Another less-common translocation subtype, t(6;11)(p21;q12), involving an Alphatranscription factor EB (TFEB) gene fusion, induces overexpression of TFEB. The translocations involving TFE3 and TFEB induce overexpression of these proteins, which can be identified by immunohistochemistry.[78]
Previous exposure to chemotherapy is the only known risk factor for the development of Xp11 translocation RCCs. In one study, the postchemotherapy interval ranged from 4 to 13 years. All reported patients received either a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor and/or an alkylating agent.[79,80]
Controversy exists as to the biological behavior of translocation RCC in children and young adults. Whereas some series have suggested a good prognosis when RCC is treated with surgery alone despite presenting at a more advanced stage (III/IV) than TFE-RCC, a meta-analysis reported that these patients have poorer outcomes.[81-83] The outcomes for these patients are being studied in the ongoing COG AREN03B2 (NCT00898365) biology and classification study. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor–targeted therapies and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors seem to be active in Xp11 translocation metastatic RCC.[84] Recurrences have been reported 20 to 30 years after initial resection of the translocation-associated RCC.[85]
Diagnosis of Xp11 translocation RCC needs to be confirmed by a molecular genetic approach, rather than using TFE3 immunohistochemistry alone, because reported cases have lacked the translocation. There is a rare subset of RCC cases that is positive for TFE3and lack a TFE3 translocation, showing an ALK translocation instead. This subset of cases represents a newly recognized subgroup within RCC that is estimated to involve 15% to 20% of unclassified pediatric RCC. In the eight reported cases in children aged 6 to 16 years, the following was observed:[86-89]
  • ALK was fused to VCL (vinculin) in a t(2;10)(p23;q22) translocation (n = 3). The VCLtranslocation cases all occurred in children with sickle cell trait, whereas none of the TMP3 translocation cases did.
  • ALK was fused to TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) (n = 3).
  • ALK was fused to HOOK-1 on 1p32 (n = 1).
  • t(1;2) translocation fusing ALK and TMP3 (n = 1).
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney TumorsTreatment for information about the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.)

Rhabdoid Tumors of the Kidney

Rhabdoid tumors in all anatomical locations have a common genetic abnormality—loss of function of the SMARCB1/INI1/SNF5/BAF47 gene located at chromosome 22q11.2. The following text refers to rhabdoid tumors without regard to their primary site. SMARCB1encodes a component of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex that has an important role in controlling gene transcription.[90,91] Loss of function occurs by deletions that lead to loss of part or all of the SMARCB1 gene and by mutations that are commonly frameshift or nonsense mutations that lead to premature truncation of the SMARCB1 protein.[91,92] A small percentage of rhabdoid tumors are caused by alterations in SMARCA4, which is the primary ATPase in the SWI/SNF complex.[93,94] Exome sequencing of 35 cases of rhabdoid tumor identified a very low mutation rate, with no genes having recurring mutations other than SMARCB1, which appeared to contribute to tumorigenesis.[95]
Germline mutations of SMARCB1 have been documented in patients with one or more primary tumors of the brain and/or kidney, consistent with a genetic predisposition to the development of rhabdoid tumors.[96,97] Approximately one-third of patients with rhabdoid tumors have germline SMARCB1 alterations.[91,98] In most cases, the mutations are de novo and not inherited. The median age at diagnosis of children with rhabdoid tumors and a germline mutation or deletion is younger (6 months) than that of children with apparently sporadic disease (18 months).[99] Germline mosaicism has been suggested for several families with multiple affected siblings. It appears that patients with germline mutations may have the worst prognosis.[100,101] Germline mutations in SMARCA4 have also been reported in patients with rhabdoid tumors.[93,102]
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment for information about the treatment of rhabdoid tumor of the kidney.)

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney

Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is an uncommon renal tumor that comprises approximately 5% of all primary renal malignancies in children, and it is observed most often before age 3 years. The molecular background of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is poorly understood because of its rarity and lack of experimental models.
Several biological features of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney have been described, including the following:
  • Internal tandem duplications in exon 15 of the BCOR gene (BCL6 corepressor) were reported in 100% (20 of 20 cases) of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney cases but in none of the other pediatric renal tumors evaluated.[103] Other reports have confirmed the finding of BCOR internal tandem duplications in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.[104-106] Hence, BCOR internal tandem duplications appear to play a key role in the tumorigenesis of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, and their identification should aid in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors.[103]
  • The YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion (involving either NUTM2B or NUTM2E) resulting from t(10;17) was reported in 12% of cases of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.[107] The presence of the YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion appears to be mutually exclusive with the presence of BCORinternal tandem duplications; this observation is based on a study of 22 cases of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney that included two cases with the YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion and 20 cases with BCOR internal tandem duplications.[104] The gene expression profiles for cases with the YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion were distinctive from those with BCOR internal tandem duplications.
  • Evaluation of 13 clear cell sarcoma of the kidney tumors for changes in chromosome copy number, mutations, and rearrangements found a single case with the YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion and 12 cases with BCOR internal tandem duplications.[106,108] No other recurrent segmental chromosomal copy number changes or somatic variants (single nucleotide or small insertion/deletion) were identified, providing further support for the role of BCOR internal tandem duplication as the primary oncogenic driver for clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.[108]
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment for information about the treatment of clear cell tumor of the kidney.)
  1. Gadd S, Huff V, Walz AL, et al.: A Children's Oncology Group and TARGET initiative exploring the genetic landscape of Wilms tumor. Nat Genet 49 (10): 1487-1494, 2017. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Wegert J, Wittmann S, Leuschner I, et al.: WTX inactivation is a frequent, but late event in Wilms tumors without apparent clinical impact. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 48 (12): 1102-11, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Ruteshouser EC, Robinson SM, Huff V: Wilms tumor genetics: mutations in WT1, WTX, and CTNNB1 account for only about one-third of tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 47 (6): 461-70, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Walz AL, Ooms A, Gadd S, et al.: Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX homeodomain mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors. Cancer Cell 27 (2): 286-97, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Wegert J, Ishaque N, Vardapour R, et al.: Mutations in the SIX1/2 pathway and the DROSHA/DGCR8 miRNA microprocessor complex underlie high-risk blastemal type Wilms tumors. Cancer Cell 27 (2): 298-311, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Rakheja D, Chen KS, Liu Y, et al.: Somatic mutations in DROSHA and DICER1 impair microRNA biogenesis through distinct mechanisms in Wilms tumours. Nat Commun 2: 4802, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Torrezan GT, Ferreira EN, Nakahata AM, et al.: Recurrent somatic mutation in DROSHA induces microRNA profile changes in Wilms tumour. Nat Commun 5: 4039, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Dome JS, Huff V: Wilms Tumor Predisposition. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, et al., eds.: GeneReviews. Seattle, Wash: University of Washington, 1993-2018, pp. Available online. Last accessed August 22, 2018.
  9. Mahamdallie SS, Hanks S, Karlin KL, et al.: Mutations in the transcriptional repressor REST predispose to Wilms tumor. Nat Genet 47 (12): 1471-4, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Hanks S, Perdeaux ER, Seal S, et al.: Germline mutations in the PAF1 complex gene CTR9 predispose to Wilms tumour. Nat Commun 5: 4398, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Huff V: Wilms tumor genetics. Am J Med Genet 79 (4): 260-7, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Scott RH, Murray A, Baskcomb L, et al.: Stratification of Wilms tumor by genetic and epigenetic analysis. Oncotarget 3 (3): 327-35, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Corbin M, de Reyniès A, Rickman DS, et al.: WNT/beta-catenin pathway activation in Wilms tumors: a unifying mechanism with multiple entries? Genes Chromosomes Cancer 48 (9): 816-27, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Maiti S, Alam R, Amos CI, et al.: Frequent association of beta-catenin and WT1 mutations in Wilms tumors. Cancer Res 60 (22): 6288-92, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Gadd S, Huff V, Huang CC, et al.: Clinically relevant subsets identified by gene expression patterns support a revised ontogenic model of Wilms tumor: a Children's Oncology Group Study. Neoplasia 14 (8): 742-56, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, Perlman EJ, et al.: Age distributions, birth weights, nephrogenic rests, and heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer 47 (3): 260-7, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Fukuzawa R, Heathcott RW, More HE, et al.: Sequential WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations and alterations of beta-catenin localisation in intralobar nephrogenic rests and associated Wilms tumours: two case studies. J Clin Pathol 60 (9): 1013-6, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Perlman EJ, Gadd S, Arold ST, et al.: MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours. Nat Commun 6: 10013, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Diller L, Ghahremani M, Morgan J, et al.: Constitutional WT1 mutations in Wilms' tumor patients. J Clin Oncol 16 (11): 3634-40, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Little SE, Hanks SP, King-Underwood L, et al.: Frequency and heritability of WT1 mutations in nonsyndromic Wilms' tumor patients: a UK Children's Cancer Study Group Study. J Clin Oncol 22 (20): 4140-6, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Perlman EJ, Grundy PE, Anderson JR, et al.: WT1 mutation and 11P15 loss of heterozygosity predict relapse in very low-risk wilms tumors treated with surgery alone: a children's oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 29 (6): 698-703, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Pelletier J, Bruening W, Kashtan CE, et al.: Germline mutations in the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene are associated with abnormal urogenital development in Denys-Drash syndrome. Cell 67 (2): 437-47, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Barbosa AS, Hadjiathanasiou CG, Theodoridis C, et al.: The same mutation affecting the splicing of WT1 gene is present on Frasier syndrome patients with or without Wilms' tumor. Hum Mutat 13 (2): 146-53, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Scott RH, Stiller CA, Walker L, et al.: Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour. J Med Genet 43 (9): 705-15, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, et al.: Screening of children with hemihypertrophy, aniridia, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in patients with Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 188-92, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Scott RH, Walker L, Olsen ØE, et al.: Surveillance for Wilms tumour in at-risk children: pragmatic recommendations for best practice. Arch Dis Child 91 (12): 995-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  27. Breslow NE, Norris R, Norkool PA, et al.: Characteristics and outcomes of children with the Wilms tumor-Aniridia syndrome: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 21 (24): 4579-85, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  28. Scott RH, Douglas J, Baskcomb L, et al.: Constitutional 11p15 abnormalities, including heritable imprinting center mutations, cause nonsyndromic Wilms tumor. Nat Genet 40 (11): 1329-34, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  29. Lipska BS, Ranchin B, Iatropoulos P, et al.: Genotype-phenotype associations in WT1 glomerulopathy. Kidney Int 85 (5): 1169-78, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  30. Lehnhardt A, Karnatz C, Ahlenstiel-Grunow T, et al.: Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with heterozygous mutations in wilms tumor suppressor gene 1. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 10 (5): 825-31, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  31. Barbaux S, Niaudet P, Gubler MC, et al.: Donor splice-site mutations in WT1 are responsible for Frasier syndrome. Nat Genet 17 (4): 467-70, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  32. Lange J, Peterson SM, Takashima JR, et al.: Risk factors for end stage renal disease in non-WT1-syndromic Wilms tumor. J Urol 186 (2): 378-86, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  33. Breslow NE, Takashima JR, Ritchey ML, et al.: Renal failure in the Denys-Drash and Wilms' tumor-aniridia syndromes. Cancer Res 60 (15): 4030-2, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  34. Koesters R, Ridder R, Kopp-Schneider A, et al.: Mutational activation of the beta-catenin proto-oncogene is a common event in the development of Wilms' tumors. Cancer Res 59 (16): 3880-2, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  35. Koesters R, Niggli F, von Knebel Doeberitz M, et al.: Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein in Wilms' tumours. J Pathol 199 (1): 68-76, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  36. Major MB, Camp ND, Berndt JD, et al.: Wilms tumor suppressor WTX negatively regulates WNT/beta-catenin signaling. Science 316 (5827): 1043-6, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  37. Rivera MN, Kim WJ, Wells J, et al.: An X chromosome gene, WTX, is commonly inactivated in Wilms tumor. Science 315 (5812): 642-5, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  38. Fukuzawa R, Anaka MR, Weeks RJ, et al.: Canonical WNT signalling determines lineage specificity in Wilms tumour. Oncogene 28 (8): 1063-75, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  39. Jenkins ZA, van Kogelenberg M, Morgan T, et al.: Germline mutations in WTX cause a sclerosing skeletal dysplasia but do not predispose to tumorigenesis. Nat Genet 41 (1): 95-100, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  40. Grohmann A, Tanneberger K, Alzner A, et al.: AMER1 regulates the distribution of the tumor suppressor APC between microtubules and the plasma membrane. J Cell Sci 120 (Pt 21): 3738-47, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  41. Satoh Y, Nakadate H, Nakagawachi T, et al.: Genetic and epigenetic alterations on the short arm of chromosome 11 are involved in a majority of sporadic Wilms' tumours. Br J Cancer 95 (4): 541-7, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  42. Algar EM, St Heaps L, Darmanian A, et al.: Paternally inherited submicroscopic duplication at 11p15.5 implicates insulin-like growth factor II in overgrowth and Wilms' tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 67 (5): 2360-5, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  43. Lennerz JK, Timmerman RJ, Grange DK, et al.: Addition of H19 'loss of methylation testing' for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) increases the diagnostic yield. J Mol Diagn 12 (5): 576-88, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  44. Bliek J, Gicquel C, Maas S, et al.: Epigenotyping as a tool for the prediction of tumor risk and tumor type in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). J Pediatr 145 (6): 796-9, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  45. Rump P, Zeegers MP, van Essen AJ: Tumor risk in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: A review and meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet A 136 (1): 95-104, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  46. Brioude F, Lacoste A, Netchine I, et al.: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: growth pattern and tumor risk according to molecular mechanism, and guidelines for tumor surveillance. Horm Res Paediatr 80 (6): 457-65, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  47. DeBaun MR, Tucker MA: Risk of cancer during the first four years of life in children from The Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Registry. J Pediatr 132 (3 Pt 1): 398-400, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  48. Bjornsson HT, Brown LJ, Fallin MD, et al.: Epigenetic specificity of loss of imprinting of the IGF2 gene in Wilms tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (16): 1270-3, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  49. Fukuzawa R, Breslow NE, Morison IM, et al.: Epigenetic differences between Wilms' tumours in white and east-Asian children. Lancet 363 (9407): 446-51, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  50. DeBaun MR, Siegel MJ, Choyke PL: Nephromegaly in infancy and early childhood: a risk factor for Wilms tumor in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Pediatr 132 (3 Pt 1): 401-4, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  51. Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, et al.: Epidemiology of Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 172-81, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  52. Gratias EJ, Dome JS, Jennings LJ, et al.: Association of Chromosome 1q Gain With Inferior Survival in Favorable-Histology Wilms Tumor: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 34 (26): 3189-94, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  53. Chagtai T, Zill C, Dainese L, et al.: Gain of 1q As a Prognostic Biomarker in Wilms Tumors (WTs) Treated With Preoperative Chemotherapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) WT 2001 Trial: A SIOP Renal Tumours Biology Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol 34 (26): 3195-203, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  54. Grundy PE, Breslow NE, Li S, et al.: Loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q is an adverse prognostic factor in favorable-histology Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 23 (29): 7312-21, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  55. Messahel B, Williams R, Ridolfi A, et al.: Allele loss at 16q defines poorer prognosis Wilms tumour irrespective of treatment approach in the UKW1-3 clinical trials: a Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) Study. Eur J Cancer 45 (5): 819-26, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  56. Spreafico F, Gamba B, Mariani L, et al.: Loss of heterozygosity analysis at different chromosome regions in Wilms tumor confirms 1p allelic loss as a marker of worse prognosis: a study from the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. J Urol 189 (1): 260-6, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  57. Gratias EJ, Jennings LJ, Anderson JR, et al.: Gain of 1q is associated with inferior event-free and overall survival in patients with favorable histology Wilms tumor: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer 119 (21): 3887-94, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  58. Hohenstein P, Pritchard-Jones K, Charlton J: The yin and yang of kidney development and Wilms' tumors. Genes Dev 29 (5): 467-82, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  59. Foulkes WD, Priest JR, Duchaine TF: DICER1: mutations, microRNAs and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 14 (10): 662-72, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  60. Wu MK, Sabbaghian N, Xu B, et al.: Biallelic DICER1 mutations occur in Wilms tumours. J Pathol 230 (2): 154-64, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  61. Palculict TB, Ruteshouser EC, Fan Y, et al.: Identification of germline DICER1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity in familial Wilms tumour. J Med Genet 53 (6): 385-8, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  62. Astuti D, Morris MR, Cooper WN, et al.: Germline mutations in DIS3L2 cause the Perlman syndrome of overgrowth and Wilms tumor susceptibility. Nat Genet 44 (3): 277-84, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  63. Chang HM, Triboulet R, Thornton JE, et al.: A role for the Perlman syndrome exonuclease Dis3l2 in the Lin28-let-7 pathway. Nature 497 (7448): 244-8, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  64. Alessandri JL, Cuillier F, Ramful D, et al.: Perlman syndrome: report, prenatal findings and review. Am J Med Genet A 146A (19): 2532-7, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  65. Bardeesy N, Falkoff D, Petruzzi MJ, et al.: Anaplastic Wilms' tumour, a subtype displaying poor prognosis, harbours p53 gene mutations. Nat Genet 7 (1): 91-7, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  66. el Bahtimi R, Hazen-Martin DJ, Re GG, et al.: Immunophenotype, mRNA expression, and gene structure of p53 in Wilms' tumors. Mod Pathol 9 (3): 238-44, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  67. Wallkamm V, Dörlich R, Rahm K, et al.: Live imaging of Xwnt5A-ROR2 complexes. PLoS One 9 (10): e109428, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  68. Ooms AH, Gadd S, Gerhard DS, et al.: Significance of TP53 Mutation in Wilms Tumors with Diffuse Anaplasia: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group. Clin Cancer Res 22 (22): 5582-5591, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  69. Williams RD, Al-Saadi R, Chagtai T, et al.: Subtype-specific FBXW7 mutation and MYCN copy number gain in Wilms' tumor. Clin Cancer Res 16 (7): 2036-45, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  70. Muller E, Hudgins L: 9q22.3 Microdeletion. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, et al., eds.: GeneReviews. Seattle, Wash: University of Washington, 1993-2018, pp. Available online. Last accessed August 22, 2018.
  71. Isidor B, Bourdeaut F, Lafon D, et al.: Wilms' tumor in patients with 9q22.3 microdeletion syndrome suggests a role for PTCH1 in nephroblastomas. Eur J Hum Genet 21 (7): 784-7, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  72. Garavelli L, Piemontese MR, Cavazza A, et al.: Multiple tumor types including leiomyoma and Wilms tumor in a patient with Gorlin syndrome due to 9q22.3 microdeletion encompassing the PTCH1 and FANC-C loci. Am J Med Genet A 161A (11): 2894-901, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  73. Cajaiba MM, Bale AE, Alvarez-Franco M, et al.: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and deletion of the patched gene in Gorlin syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 3 (10): 575-80, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  74. Williams RD, Chagtai T, Alcaide-German M, et al.: Multiple mechanisms of MYCN dysregulation in Wilms tumour. Oncotarget 6 (9): 7232-43, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  75. Fievet A, Belaud-Rotureau MA, Dugay F, et al.: Involvement of germline DDX1-MYCN duplication in inherited nephroblastoma. Eur J Med Genet 56 (12): 643-7, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  76. Geller JI, Dome JS: Local lymph node involvement does not predict poor outcome in pediatric renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 101 (7): 1575-83, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  77. Geller JI, Ehrlich PF, Cost NG, et al.: Characterization of adolescent and pediatric renal cell carcinoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group study AREN03B2. Cancer 121 (14): 2457-64, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  78. Argani P, Hicks J, De Marzo AM, et al.: Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC): extended immunohistochemical profile emphasizing novel RCC markers. Am J Surg Pathol 34 (9): 1295-303, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  79. Argani P, Laé M, Ballard ET, et al.: Translocation carcinomas of the kidney after chemotherapy in childhood. J Clin Oncol 24 (10): 1529-34, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  80. Ramphal R, Pappo A, Zielenska M, et al.: Pediatric renal cell carcinoma: clinical, pathologic, and molecular abnormalities associated with the members of the mit transcription factor family. Am J Clin Pathol 126 (3): 349-64, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  81. Geller JI, Argani P, Adeniran A, et al.: Translocation renal cell carcinoma: lack of negative impact due to lymph node spread. Cancer 112 (7): 1607-16, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  82. Camparo P, Vasiliu V, Molinie V, et al.: Renal translocation carcinomas: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling analysis of 31 cases with a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 32 (5): 656-70, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  83. Qiu Rao, Bing Guan, Zhou XJ: Xp11.2 Translocation renal cell carcinomas have a poorer prognosis than non-Xp11.2 translocation carcinomas in children and young adults: a meta-analysis. Int J Surg Pathol 18 (6): 458-64, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  84. Malouf GG, Camparo P, Oudard S, et al.: Targeted agents in metastatic Xp11 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a report from the Juvenile RCC Network. Ann Oncol 21 (9): 1834-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  85. Rais-Bahrami S, Drabick JJ, De Marzo AM, et al.: Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma: delayed but massive and lethal metastases of a chemotherapy-associated secondary malignancy. Urology 70 (1): 178.e3-6, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  86. Thorner PS, Shago M, Marrano P, et al.: TFE3-positive renal cell carcinomas are not always Xp11 translocation carcinomas: Report of a case with a TPM3-ALK translocation. Pathol Res Pract 212 (10): 937-942, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  87. Cajaiba MM, Jennings LJ, Rohan SM, et al.: ALK-rearranged renal cell carcinomas in children. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 55 (5): 442-51, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  88. Smith NE, Deyrup AT, Mariño-Enriquez A, et al.: VCL-ALK renal cell carcinoma in children with sickle-cell trait: the eighth sickle-cell nephropathy? Am J Surg Pathol 38 (6): 858-63, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  89. Cajaiba MM, Jennings LJ, George D, et al.: Expanding the spectrum of ALK-rearranged renal cell carcinomas in children: Identification of a novel HOOK1-ALK fusion transcript. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 55 (10): 814-7, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  90. Imbalzano AN, Jones SN: Snf5 tumor suppressor couples chromatin remodeling, checkpoint control, and chromosomal stability. Cancer Cell 7 (4): 294-5, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  91. Eaton KW, Tooke LS, Wainwright LM, et al.: Spectrum of SMARCB1/INI1 mutations in familial and sporadic rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (1): 7-15, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  92. Versteege I, Sévenet N, Lange J, et al.: Truncating mutations of hSNF5/INI1 in aggressive paediatric cancer. Nature 394 (6689): 203-6, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  93. Schneppenheim R, Frühwald MC, Gesk S, et al.: Germline nonsense mutation and somatic inactivation of SMARCA4/BRG1 in a family with rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 86 (2): 279-84, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  94. Hasselblatt M, Gesk S, Oyen F, et al.: Nonsense mutation and inactivation of SMARCA4 (BRG1) in an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor showing retained SMARCB1 (INI1) expression. Am J Surg Pathol 35 (6): 933-5, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  95. Lee RS, Stewart C, Carter SL, et al.: A remarkably simple genome underlies highly malignant pediatric rhabdoid cancers. J Clin Invest 122 (8): 2983-8, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  96. Biegel JA, Zhou JY, Rorke LB, et al.: Germ-line and acquired mutations of INI1 in atypical teratoid and rhabdoid tumors. Cancer Res 59 (1): 74-9, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  97. Biegel JA: Molecular genetics of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Neurosurg Focus 20 (1): E11, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  98. Bourdeaut F, Lequin D, Brugières L, et al.: Frequent hSNF5/INI1 germline mutations in patients with rhabdoid tumor. Clin Cancer Res 17 (1): 31-8, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  99. Geller JI, Roth JJ, Biegel JA: Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor. Crit Rev Oncog 20 (3-4): 199-216, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  100. Janson K, Nedzi LA, David O, et al.: Predisposition to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor due to an inherited INI1 mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 47 (3): 279-84, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  101. Sévenet N, Sheridan E, Amram D, et al.: Constitutional mutations of the hSNF5/INI1 gene predispose to a variety of cancers. Am J Hum Genet 65 (5): 1342-8, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  102. Hasselblatt M, Nagel I, Oyen F, et al.: SMARCA4-mutated atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are associated with inherited germline alterations and poor prognosis. Acta Neuropathol 128 (3): 453-6, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  103. Ueno-Yokohata H, Okita H, Nakasato K, et al.: Consistent in-frame internal tandem duplications of BCOR characterize clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Nat Genet 47 (8): 861-3, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  104. Karlsson J, Valind A, Gisselsson D: BCOR internal tandem duplication and YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion are mutually exclusive events in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 55 (2): 120-3, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
  105. Astolfi A, Melchionda F, Perotti D, et al.: Whole transcriptome sequencing identifies BCOR internal tandem duplication as a common feature of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Oncotarget 6 (38): 40934-9, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  106. Roy A, Kumar V, Zorman B, et al.: Recurrent internal tandem duplications of BCOR in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Nat Commun 6: 8891, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  107. O'Meara E, Stack D, Lee CH, et al.: Characterization of the chromosomal translocation t(10;17)(q22;p13) in clear cell sarcoma of kidney. J Pathol 227 (1): 72-80, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  108. Gooskens SL, Gadd S, Guidry Auvil JM, et al.: TCF21 hypermethylation in genetically quiescent clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Oncotarget 6 (18): 15828-41, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]


Melanoma-related conditions with malignant potential that arise in the pediatric population can be classified into the following three general groups:[1]
  • Large/giant congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Spitzoid melanocytic tumors ranging from atypical Spitz tumors to spitzoid melanomas.
  • Melanoma arising in older adolescents that shares characteristics with adult melanoma (i.e., conventional melanoma).
The genomic characteristics of each tumor are summarized in Table 5.
The genomic landscape of conventional melanoma in children is represented by many of the genomic alterations that are found in adults with melanoma.[1] A report from the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project observed that 15 cases of conventional melanoma had a high burden of somatic single-nucleotide variations, TERT promoter mutations (12 of 13), and activating BRAF V600 mutations (13 of 15), as well as a mutational spectrum signature consistent with ultraviolet light damage. In addition, two-thirds of the cases had MC1Rvariants associated with an increased susceptibility to melanoma.
The genomic landscape of spitzoid melanomas is characterized by kinase gene fusions involving various genes, including RETROS1NTRK1ALKMET, and BRAF.[2-4] These fusion genes have been reported in approximately 50% of cases and occur in a mutually exclusive manner.[1,3TERT promoter mutations are uncommon in spitzoid melanocytic lesions and were observed in only 4 of 56 patients evaluated in one series. However, each of the four cases with TERT promoter mutations experienced hematogenous metastases and died of their disease. This finding supports the potential of TERT promoter mutations in predicting aggressive clinical behavior in children with spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms, but additional study is needed to define the role of wild-type TERT promoter status in predicting clinical behavior in patients with primary site spitzoid tumors.
Large congenital melanocytic nevi are reported to have activating NRAS Q61 mutations with no other recurring mutations noted.[5] Somatic mosaicism for NRAS Q61 mutations has also been reported in patients with multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and neuromelanosis.[6]
Table 5. Characteristics of Melanocytic Lesions
TumorAffected Gene
Spitzoid melanomaKinase fusions (RETROSMETALKBRAFNTRK1); BAP1 loss in the presence of BRAFmutation
Spitz nevusHRASBRAF and NRAS (uncommon); kinase fusions (ROSALKNTRK1BRAFRET)
Acquired nevusBRAF
Dysplastic nevusBRAFNRAS
Blue nevusGNAQ
Ocular melanomaGNAQ
Congenital neviNRAS
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment for information about the treatment of childhood melanoma.)
  1. Lu C, Zhang J, Nagahawatte P, et al.: The genomic landscape of childhood and adolescent melanoma. J Invest Dermatol 135 (3): 816-23, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Wiesner T, He J, Yelensky R, et al.: Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas. Nat Commun 5: 3116, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Lee S, Barnhill RL, Dummer R, et al.: TERT Promoter Mutations Are Predictive of Aggressive Clinical Behavior in Patients with Spitzoid Melanocytic Neoplasms. Sci Rep 5: 11200, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Yeh I, Botton T, Talevich E, et al.: Activating MET kinase rearrangements in melanoma and Spitz tumours. Nat Commun 6: 7174, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Charbel C, Fontaine RH, Malouf GG, et al.: NRAS mutation is the sole recurrent somatic mutation in large congenital melanocytic nevi. J Invest Dermatol 134 (4): 1067-74, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Kinsler VA, Thomas AC, Ishida M, et al.: Multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and neurocutaneous melanosis are caused by postzygotic mutations in codon 61 of NRAS. J Invest Dermatol 133 (9): 2229-36, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]

Thyroid Cancer

(Refer to the Molecular Features section of the PDQ summary on Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment for information about the genomics of childhood thyroid cancer.)
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment for information about the treatment of childhood thyroid cancer.)

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

The most salient clinical and genetic alterations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are shown in Table 6.
Table 6. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes with Associated Clinical and Genetic Alterations
SyndromeClinical Features/TumorsGenetic Alterations
MEN type 1: Werner syndrome [1]Parathyroid11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Pancreatic islets:Gastrinoma11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Pituitary:Prolactinoma11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Other associated tumors (less common):Carcinoid: bronchial and thymic11q13 (MEN1 gene)
MEN type 2A: Sipple syndromeMedullary thyroid carcinoma10q11.2 (RET gene)
Parathyroid gland
MEN type 2BMedullary thyroid carcinoma10q11.2 (RET gene)
Mucosal neuromas
Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis
Marfanoid habitus
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome (Werner syndrome): MEN1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the presence of tumors in the parathyroid, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary. Diagnosis of this syndrome should be considered when two endocrine tumors listed in Table 6 are present.
    A study documented the initial symptoms of MEN1 syndrome occurring before age 21 years in 160 patients.[2] Of note, most patients had familial MEN1 syndrome and were followed up using an international screening protocol.
    1. Primary hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism, the most common symptom, was found in 75% of patients, usually only in those with biological abnormalities. Primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed outside of a screening program is extremely rare, most often presents with nephrolithiasis, and should lead the clinician to suspect MEN1.[2,3]
    2. Pituitary adenomas. Pituitary adenomas were discovered in 34% of patients, occurred mainly in females older than 10 years, and were often symptomatic.[2]
    3. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were found in 23% of patients. Specific diagnoses included insulinoma, nonsecreting pancreatic tumor, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The first case of insulinoma occurred before age 5 years.[2]
    4. Malignant tumors. Four patients had malignant tumors (two adrenal carcinomas, one gastrinoma, and one thymic carcinoma). The patient with thymic carcinoma died before age 21 years from rapidly progressive disease.
    Germline mutations of the MEN1 gene located on chromosome 11q13 are found in 70% to 90% of patients; however, this gene has also been shown to be frequently inactivated in sporadic tumors.[4] Mutation testing is combined with clinical screening for patients and family members with proven at-risk MEN1 syndrome.[5]
    It is recommended that screening for patients with MEN1 syndrome begin by the age of 5 years and continue for life. The number of tests or biochemical screening is age specific and may include yearly serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, gastrin, glucagon, secretin, proinsulin, chromogranin A, prolactin, and IGF-1. Radiologic screening should include a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and computed tomography of the abdomen every 1 to 3 years.[6]
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) syndromes:
    A germline activating mutation in the RET oncogene (a receptor tyrosine kinase) on chromosome 10q11.2 is responsible for the uncontrolled growth of cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with MEN2A and MEN2B syndromes.[7-9] Table 7 describes the clinical features of MEN2A and MEN2B syndromes.
    • MEN2A: MEN2A is characterized by the presence of two or more endocrine tumors (refer to Table 6) in an individual or in close relatives.[10RET mutations in these patients are usually confined to exons 10 and 11.
    • MEN2B: MEN2B is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinomas, parathyroid hyperplasias, adenomas, pheochromocytomas, mucosal neuromas, and ganglioneuromas.[10-12] The medullary thyroid carcinomas that develop in these patients are extremely aggressive. More than 95% of mutations in these patients are confined to codon 918 in exon 16, causing receptor autophosphorylation and activation.[13] Patients also have medullated corneal nerve fibers, distinctive faces with enlarged lips, and an asthenic Marfanoid body habitus.
      A pentagastrin stimulation test can be used to detect the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in these patients, although management of patients is driven primarily by the results of genetic analysis for RET mutations.[13,14]
    Guidelines for genetic testing of suspected patients with MEN2 syndrome and the correlations between the type of mutation and the risk levels of aggressiveness of medullary thyroid cancer have been published.[14,15]
  • Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma is diagnosed in families with medullary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of pheochromocytoma or parathyroid adenoma/hyperplasia. RET mutations in exons 10, 11, 13, and 14 account for most cases.
    The most-recent literature suggests that this entity should not be identified as a form of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma that is separate from MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma should be recognized as a variant of MEN2A, to include families with only medullary thyroid cancer who meet the original criteria for familial disease. The original criteria includes families of at least two generations with at least two, but less than ten, patients with RET germline mutations; small families in which two or fewer members in a single generation have germline RET mutations; and single individuals with a RET germline mutation.[14,16]
Table 7. Clinical Features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) Syndromes
MEN2 SubtypeMedullary Thyroid CarcinomaPheochromocytomaParathyroid Disease
MEN2A95%50%20% to 30%
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment for information about the treatment of childhood MEN syndromes.)
  1. Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia--syndromes of the twentieth century. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83 (8): 2617-20, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Goudet P, Dalac A, Le Bras M, et al.: MEN1 disease occurring before 21 years old: a 160-patient cohort study from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100 (4): 1568-77, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Romero Arenas MA, Morris LF, Rich TA, et al.: Preoperative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis improves the surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Pediatr Surg 49 (4): 546-50, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Farnebo F, Teh BT, Kytölä S, et al.: Alterations of the MEN1 gene in sporadic parathyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83 (8): 2627-30, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Field M, Shanley S, Kirk J: Inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes in paediatric practice. J Paediatr Child Health 43 (4): 219-29, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 24 (3): 355-70, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Sanso GE, Domene HM, Garcia R, et al.: Very early detection of RET proto-oncogene mutation is crucial for preventive thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 children: presence of C-cell malignant disease in asymptomatic carriers. Cancer 94 (2): 323-30, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Alsanea O, Clark OH: Familial thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 13 (1): 44-51, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Fitze G: Management of patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Pediatr Surg 14 (6): 375-83, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Puñales MK, da Rocha AP, Meotti C, et al.: Clinical and oncological features of children and young adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Thyroid 18 (12): 1261-8, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Skinner MA, DeBenedetti MK, Moley JF, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. J Pediatr Surg 31 (1): 177-81; discussion 181-2, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Brauckhoff M, Gimm O, Weiss CL, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B syndrome due to codon 918 mutation: clinical manifestation and course in early and late onset disease. World J Surg 28 (12): 1305-11, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Sakorafas GH, Friess H, Peros G: The genetic basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer: clinical implications for the surgeon, with a particular emphasis on the role of prophylactic thyroidectomy. Endocr Relat Cancer 15 (4): 871-84, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Waguespack SG, Rich TA, Perrier ND, et al.: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma and MEN2 syndromes in childhood. Nat Rev Endocrinol 7 (10): 596-607, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Kloos RT, Eng C, Evans DB, et al.: Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 19 (6): 565-612, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Wells SA Jr, Asa SL, Dralle H, et al.: Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 25 (6): 567-610, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]

Changes to this Summary (02/20/2019)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added text to the Central Nervous System (CNS) Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors (AT/RT) subsection about the loss of SMARCB1 or SMARCA4 protein expression and the results of a study that treated adult patients with an EZH2 inhibitor (cited Wilson et al., Knutson et al., Kurmasheva et al., and Italiano et al. as references 64, 65, 66, and 67, respectively).
Revised text in the Ewing Sarcoma subsection to state that genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for Ewing sarcoma at 1p36.22, 10q21, and 15q15. Deep sequencing through the 10q21.3 region identified a polymorphism in the EGR2 gene, which appears to cooperate with and magnify the enhanced activity of the gene product of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion that is seen in most patients with Ewing sarcoma. Also added text to state that three new susceptibility loci have been identified at 6p25.1, 20p11.22, and 20p11.23 (cited Machiela et al. as reference 33).
This section was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

About This PDQ Summary

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the genomics of childhood cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.

Reviewers and Updates

This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:
  • be discussed at a meeting,
  • be cited with text, or
  • replace or update an existing article that is already cited.
Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.
The lead reviewer for Childhood Cancer Genomics is:
  • Malcolm A. Smith, MD, PhD (National Cancer Institute)
Any comments or questions about the summary content should be submitted to through the NCI website's Email Us. Do not contact the individual Board Members with questions or comments about the summaries. Board members will not respond to individual inquiries.

Levels of Evidence

Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level-of-evidence designations.

Permission to Use This Summary

PDQ is a registered trademark. Although the content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text, it cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless it is presented in its entirety and is regularly updated. However, an author would be permitted to write a sentence such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks succinctly: [include excerpt from the summary].”
The preferred citation for this PDQ summary is:
PDQ® Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Childhood Cancer Genomics. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>. [PMID: 27466641]
Images in this summary are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher for use within the PDQ summaries only. Permission to use images outside the context of PDQ information must be obtained from the owner(s) and cannot be granted by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the illustrations in this summary, along with many other cancer-related images, is available in Visuals Online, a collection of over 2,000 scientific images.


Based on the strength of the available evidence, treatment options may be described as either “standard” or “under clinical evaluation.” These classifications should not be used as a basis for insurance reimbursement determinations. More information on insurance coverage is available on on the Managing Cancer Care page.

Contact Us

More information about contacting us or receiving help with the website can be found on our Contact Us for Help page. Questions can also be submitted to through the website’s Email Us.
  • Updated: February 20, 2019

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario