Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0584. [Epub ahead of print]
A Pragmatic Testing-Eligibility Framework for Population Mutation Screening: The Example of BRCA1/2.
Background: Eligibility guidelines for genetic testing may be revisited, given technological advances, plummeting costs, and proposals for population mutation screening. A key property of eligibility criteria is the tradeoff between the number of mutation carriers identified versus population members tested. We assess the fractions of mutation carriers identified, versus women undergoing mutation testing, for BRCA1/2founder mutation screening in U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women.Methods: BRCA1/2 carrier probabilities, based on personal/family history, were calculated using the risk-prediction tool BRCAPRO for 4,589 volunteers (102 mutation carriers) in the population-based Washington Ashkenazi Study. For each carrier-probability threshold between 0% and 10%, we compared the percentage of founder mutations detected versus the percentage of women requiring mutation testing. PCR mutation testing was conducted at the NIH for the 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish founder mutations (5382insC and 185delAG in BRCA1, and 6174delT in BRCA2).Results: Identifying 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutations required testing the 60% of Ashkenazi-Jewish women with carrier probabilities exceeding 0.56%, potentially avoiding mutation testing for approximately 0.7 to 1.1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women. Alternatively, testing the 44% whose carrier probability exceeded 0.78% identified 80% of mutation carriers, increasing to 89% of mutation carriers when accounting for cascade testing triggered after mutation-positive daughters were identified by screening. We present data on all carrier-probability thresholds, e.g., a 5% threshold identified 46% of mutation carriers while testing 10% of women.Conclusions: Different carrier-probability thresholds offered diverse tradeoffs between numbers of identified mutation carriers versus women tested. Low carrier-probability thresholds identified 90% of BRCA1/2 founder mutation carriers, without testing approximately 1 million U.S. Ashkenazi-Jewish women with lowest carrier probabilities.Impact: In general, this risk-based framework could provide useful new options to consider during eligibility-criteria development for population mutation screening.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.