Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Apr 20;19(4). pii: E1251. doi: 10.3390/ijms19041251.
What Does This Mutation Mean? The Tools and Pitfalls of Variant Interpretation in Lymphoid Malignancies.
Yann G1, Jonathan L2,3,4, Kaddour C5, Sandrine H6,7, Claire B8,9, Gilles S10,11,12, Pierre S13,14,15, Sarah H16,17,18.
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is increasingly important in determining cancer diagnoses, with subsequent prognostic and therapeutic implications. The biology of cancer is becoming increasingly deciphered and it is clear that therapy needs to be individually tailored. Whilst translational research plays an important role in lymphoid malignancies, few guidelines exist to guide biologists and routine laboratories through this constantly evolving field. In this article, we review the challenges of interpreting HTS in lymphoid malignancies and provide a toolkit to interpret single nucleotide variants obtained from HTS. We define the pre-analytical issues such as sequencing DNA obtained from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), the acquisition of germline DNA, or the bioinformatic pitfalls, the analytical issues encountered and how to manage them. We describe the main constitutional and cancer databases, their characteristics and limitations, with an emphasis on variant interpretation in lymphoid malignancies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of predictions that one can make using in silico or in vitro modelling, pharmacogenomic screening, and the limits of those prediction tools. This description of the current status in genomic interpretation highlights the need for new large databases and international collaboration in the lymphoma field.
lymphoid malignancies; next-generation sequencing; variant interpretation
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