- Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection.
- Sepsis begins outside the hospital for nearly 80% of patients, yet 7 in 10 patients with sepsis had recently used healthcare services or had chronic diseases requiring frequent medical care.
- Health departments can help advance sepsis prevention and promote early recognition, vaccination, and chronic disease management in healthcare and community settings―read how states and health organizations are improving sepsis survival.
Sepsis Questions and Answers
Sepsis is a complication caused by the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection, which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death.
Sepsis can occur to anyone, at any time, from any type of infection, and can affect any part of the body. It can occur even after a minor infection.
Infections can lead to sepsis. An infection occurs when germs enter a person’s body and multiply, causing illness, and organ and tissue damage. Certain infections and germs lead to sepsis most often. Sepsis is often associated with infections of the lungs (e.g., pneumonia), urinary tract (e.g., kidney), skin, and gut.Staphylococcus aureus (staph), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and some types of Streptococcus (strep) are common germs that can cause sepsis.
Anyone can develop sepsis from an infection, especially when not treated properly. However, sepsis occurs most often in people aged 65 years or older or less than 1 year, have weakened immune systems, or have chronic medical conditions (e.g., diabetes).
A CDC evaluation found more than 90% of adults and 70% of children who developed sepsis had a health condition that may have put them at risk.
Ask your doctor about your risk for getting sepsis. If you suspect sepsis, ask your doctor, "Could it be sepsis?"
There is no single sign or symptom of sepsis. It is, rather, a combination of symptoms. Since sepsis is the result of an infection, symptoms can include infection signs (diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat, etc.), as well as ANY of the symptoms below:
- Shivering, fever, or very cold
- Extreme pain or discomfort
- Clammy or sweaty skin
- Confusion or disorientation
- Short of breath
- High heart rate
- Get immediate medical attention if you have any signs or symptoms of an infection or sepsis. This is a medical emergency.
- If you are continuing to feel worse or not getting better from an infection, ask your doctor about sepsis.
Doctors diagnose sepsis using a number of physical findings like fever, increased heart rate, and increased breathing rate. They also do lab tests that check for signs of infection.
Many of the symptoms of sepsis, such as fever and difficulty breathing, are the same as in other conditions, making sepsis hard to diagnose in its early stages.
People with sepsis are usually treated in the hospital. Doctors try to treat the infection, keep the vital organs working, and prevent a drop in blood pressure.
Doctors treat sepsis with antibiotics as soon as possible. Many patients receive oxygen and intravenous (IV) fluids to maintain normal blood oxygen levels and blood pressure. Other types of treatment, such as assisting breathing with a machine or kidney dialysis, may be necessary. Sometimes surgery is required to remove tissue damaged by the infection.
Many people who get sepsis recover completely and their lives return to normal. But some people may experience permanent organ damage. For example, in someone who already has kidney problems, sepsis can lead to kidney failure that requires lifelong dialysis.
- Get vaccinated against the flu, pneumonia, and any other infections that could lead to sepsis. Talk to your doctor for more information.
- Prevent infections that can lead to sepsis by:
- Cleaning scrapes and wounds
- Practicing good hygiene (e.g., hand washing)
- Know that time matters. If you have a severe infection, look for signs and symptoms like: shivering, fever, or very cold, extreme pain or discomfort, clammy or sweaty skin, confusion or disorientation, short of breath, and high heart rate.
CDC works to prevent infections that could lead to sepsis through promotion of vaccination for diseases like pneumococcus and meningitis, smoking cessation programs to prevent community-acquired pneumonia, and strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Recently, CDC has projects specifically focused on sepsis prevention so that we can better understand the factors that contribute to sepsis, enhance prevention strategies, and save lives.
CDC is collaborating with patient advocacy and clinical partners to promote sepsis prevention and early recognition among healthcare providers, patients and their families.