Español: Norovirus en el mundo
Worldwide, about one out of every five cases of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting illness) is caused by norovirus. Globally, norovirus is estimated to be the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis. It is responsible for 685 million cases every year, 200 million of these cases are among children younger than 5 years old. This leads to an estimated 50,000 child deaths every year, nearly all of which occur in developing countries.
Though most deaths occur in developed countries, norovirus is a problem in both low and high income countries. Every year norovirus is estimated to cost $60 billion, these costs are mainly due to healthcare costs (money spent to treat complications from norovirus) and lost productivity (people not being able to work because they are sick).
Due to the increasing use of rotavirus vaccine, norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis for which children need medical care in some countries, including the United States and Nicaragua. This trend is likely to continue as other countries see the benefits of rotavirus vaccination.
Norovirus infections and outbreaks are usually more common in cooler, winter months. About half of all cases occur from December through February in countries above the equator (center line of the earth) and June through August in countries below the equator. However, in places closer to the equator, norovirus may be less seasonal. This may be because of temperature or the timing of the rainy season, but may also be related to when and how many babies are born.
Worldwide, norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The most common norovirus strain (genogroup II genotype 4) is a major cause of outbreaks worldwide. New norovirus strains emerge about every 2 to 4 years. Often, but not always, these new strains lead to an increase in outbreaks worldwide.
The CDC’s Division of Viral Diseases works with many global partners to identify the burden of acute gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and to prevent norovirus outbreaks throughout the world.
- Norovirus and Working With Food
- U.S. Trends and Outbreaks
- Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus
- Ahmed SM, Hall AJ, Robinson AE, Verhoef L, Premkumar P, Parashar UD, et al. Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2014;14(8):725-30.
- Ahmed SM, Lopman BA, Levy K. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the global seasonality of norovirus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e75922.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: emergence of new norovirus strain GII.4 Sydney — United States, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2013;62(03):55.
- Siebenga JJ, Vennema H, Zheng D-P, Vinjé J, Lee BE, Pang X-L, et al. Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001–2007. Journal of Infectious Diseases. September 1, 2009 2009;200(5):802-12.
- Havelaar AH, Kirk MD, Torgerson PR, Gibb HJ, Hald T, Lake RJ, et al. World Health Organization Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010. PLoS Med. 2015 Dec 3;12(12):e1001923.
- Bartsch SM, Lopman BA, Ozawa S, Hall AJ, Lee BY. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 26;11(4):e0151219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151219. eCollection 2016.
- Lopman BA, Steele D, Kirkwood CD, Parashar UD. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control. PLoS Med. 2016 Apr 26;13(4):e1001999. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001999. eCollection 2016 Apr.