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Technological Solutions to Address Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Volume 22, Number 5—May 2016 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Technological Solutions to Address Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Volume 22, Number 5—May 2016 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Claude Monet (1840–1926), Chrysanthemums, 1897. Oil on Canvas, 51 3/16 in × 39 in /130 cm × 99 cm. Public domain digital image (copyright expired). Private Collection. (Painting on public display at the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, and the Royal Academy of Arts, London during 2015–2016.)

Volume 22, Number 5—May 2016


Technological Solutions to Address Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

To the Editor: Since the 1930s, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become resistant to drugs in every class of antimicrobial therapy used to treat it. We read with interest the article by Martin et al. about trends in Canada onNgonorrhoeae susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, the only class of antimicrobial drugs to which most Ngonorrhoeae strains remain susceptible (1). We find the reported decrease in cefixime- and ceftriaxone-reduced susceptibility during 2010–2014 encouraging, but remain concerned about a threat from drug-resistant and untreatable Ngonorrhoeae infections: a similar downward trend in the United States reversed in 2014 (2). That divergence demonstrates the limited reliability of surveillance data.
Addressing resistance requires new methods for susceptibility determination without culture. Real-time screening for genes associated with antimicrobial drug resistance, such as penA mosaic alleles yielding decreased susceptibility to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins, may be a valuable method to determine treatment (3). In the same issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Deguchi et al. described a case of multidrug-resistant N.gonorrhoeae (4), further highlighting the urgency for the innovative approach of using molecular tests to individualize treatment regimens. An ongoing study supported by the National Institutes of Health (R21AI109005) is evaluating how a laboratory-developed molecular Ngonorrhoeae genotypic susceptibility test for ciprofloxacin enables rapid identification of effective antimicrobial drugs (5).
Ngonorrhoeae may acquire new resistance mechanisms under selection pressures imposed by use of antimicrobial drugs and horizontal gene transfer from other commensal Neisseria species resident in the human oropharynx (3). Inconsistent pharyngeal Ngonorrhoeae screening may lead to missed opportunities for treatment. A National Institutes of Health program (Antibiotic Resistance Leadership Group, award no. UM1AI104681) is ongoing to assist manufacturers in obtaining US Food and Drug Administration approval for molecular assays to detect extragenital gonococcal infections.
For nearly 8 decades, N. gonorrhoeae has been controllable. Continued investment in research and the development of new laboratory technology are critical in supporting an effective response to mitigate the threat of untreatable gonorrhea.
Claire C. BristowComments to Author , Huan Dong, and Jeffrey D. Klausner
Author affiliations: University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA (C.C. Bristow)Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, USA (H. Dong)University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles (H. Dong, J.D. Klausner)


We received funding from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases R21AI109005. C.C.B. received funding from National Institute on Drug Abuse T32 DA023356 and National Institute on Drug Abuse R01 DA037773-01A1.


  1. Martin ISawatzky PLiu GAllen VLefebvre BHoang LDecline in decreased cephalosporin susceptibility and increase in azithromycin resistance inNeisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:65–7. DOIPubMed
  2. Kirkcaldy RDHook EW IIISoge OOdel Rio CKubin GZenilman JMTrends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to cephalosporins in the United States, 2006–2014. JAMA2015;314:186971 . DOIPubMed
  3. Buono SAWatson TDBorenstein LAKlausner JDPandori MWGodwin HAStemming the tide of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the need for an individualized approach to treatment. J Antimicrob Chemother2015;70:37481DOIPubMed
  4. Deguchi TYasuda MHatazaki KKameyama KHorie KKato TNew clinical strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis2016;22:1424DOIPubMed
  5. Hemarajata PYang SSoge OOHumphries RMKlausner JDPerformance and verification of a real-time PCR assay targeting gyrA gene for prediction of ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol2016;54:8058DOIPubMed
Suggested citation for this article: Bristow CC, Dong H, Klausner JD. Technological solutions to address drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 May [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2205.160083

DOI: 10.3201/eid2205.160083

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