viernes, 29 de abril de 2016

CDC MMWR News Synopsis for April 28, 2016

MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review
MMWR News Synopsis for April 28, 2016

Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 Years — United States, 2006–2007 and 2013–2014
Declines in teen birth rates are encouraging, but key challenges persist for many communities. The national teen birth rate is now at an all-time low. Since 2006, teen birth rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens. While these dramatic declines among Hispanic and black teens have helped reduce gaps, birth rates remain twice as high for these teens nationally compared with white teens and in some states are more than three times as high. Data also highlight the role of socioeconomic conditions: regardless of race or ethnicity, higher unemployment, lower income, and less educational attainment are more common in communities with the highest teen birth rates. While it’s encouraging to see that many teens are taking steps to prevent pregnancy, more must be done. CDC is committed to collaborating on community-based pregnancy prevention efforts to further reduce teen pregnancies.

Opioid Prescriptions among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid — New York, 2008–2013
The overall rate of opioid prescribing to New York State Medicaid-enrolled women of reproductive age is almost 50 percent lower than the national rate and varies by pregnancy and contraceptive status. A study of women enrolled in New York State’s Medicaid program from 2008-2013 finds that, on average, 20 percent received opioid prescriptions. Prescribing varied by pregnancy and contraceptive status with pregnant women prescribed opioids at the lowest rate (9.5 percent). This contrasts with a recent study of reproductive-age women enrolled in Medicaid in the United States, which found 39 percent received opioid prescriptions during 2008-2012. New York’s controlled substances prescription monitoring with mandated participation by medical providers might contribute to lower opioid prescribing. Healthcare providers should discuss pregnancy status, intention, sexual activity, contraceptive use, the potential risks of opioid medication use, and safer pain medications or non-pharmacologic treatments with women of reproductive age before prescribing.
Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series
Hiberix (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]) is now approved for use as a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. On January 14, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the expanded use of Hiberix as a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Hiberix was first licensed in the United States in August 2009 for use as a booster dose in children ages 15 months through 4 years. Expanding the age indication to include infants provides another vaccine option for the recommended Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) primary series in addition to other currently licensed monovalent or combination Hib vaccines recommended for the primary vaccination series. The immunogenicity of Hiberix following the primary series was equivalent to ActHib, another currently licensed monovalent Hib vaccine. The safety profile of Hiberix was similar to other Hib vaccines.

Notes from the Field:
  • Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Exposure to Swimming Pool Water Supplied by an Overland Pipe — Inyo County, California, 2015
  • Health Care–Associated Hepatitis A Outbreak — Texas, 2015

  • Distribution of Long-Term-Care Staffing Hours, by Staff Member Type and Sector — United States, 2014

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