Human Polyomavirus 9 Infection in Kidney Transplant Patients - Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014
Human Polyomavirus 9 Infection in Kidney Transplant Patients
Els van der Meijden , Herman F. Wunderink, Caroline S. van der Blij-de Brouwer, Hans L. Zaaijer, Joris I. Rotmans, Jan Nico Bouwes Bavinck, and Mariet C.W. Feltkamp
Author affiliations: Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands (E. van der Meijden, H.F. Wunderink, C.S. van der Blij-de Brouwer, J.I. Rotmans, J.N. Bouwes Bavinck, M.C.W. Feltkamp); Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (H.L. Zaaijer)
The Polyomaviridae constitute a family of small DNA viruses that infect a variety of hosts. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), discovered in 1971 (1,2), are well-known examples of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) that cause severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Serologic data have revealed that most polyomaviruses are ubiquitous (3–6). In case of JCPyV and BKPyV, primary infection occurs early in life, without apparent symptoms, and persists throughout life as latent infection in the kidneys, accompanied by occasional virus shedding in urine (7). When immunity is decreased, these viruses can reactivate with detectable viremia and manifestation of disease, which poses a threat to, among others, patients who receive solid-organ transplants. For kidney transplant patients, BKPyV infection is considered the most common viral complication and causes nephropathy and graft loss in 1%–10% of cases if left untreated (8). It is not known what determines the severity of BKPyV infection and whether co-infection is involved in the pathogenesis.
Since 2007, at least 10 novel HPyVs have been discovered (9–20); of these, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa–associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) have been shown to be associated with disease (11,19,21,22). Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9), so far without a disease association, was identified in 2011 from a serum sample from a kidney transplant patient (17). Overall seroprevalence of HPyV9 has been determined to be 25% to 50% (23–26).
Because HPyV9 was originally isolated from a kidney transplant recipient (17), we aimed to systematically study the presence of HPyV9 infection in kidney transplant patients and investigate a possible association with the known nephropathogenic BKPyV. We analyzed a cohort of 101 transplant patients who received either a kidney transplant or a simultaneous kidney–pancreas transplant for the appearance of markers for HPyV9 infection during the 18 months after transplantation. We assessed the presence of HPyV9 DNA and IgG seroresponses in serum samples. The HPyV9 findings in the transplant cohort were compared with those obtained for an age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy blood donors. Co-infection with BKPyV was investigated by comparing observed HPyV9 and BKPyV viremia levels in the transplant cohort. For comparative purposes, we also tested for cytomegalovirus (CMV), which, like polyomaviruses, frequently reactivates during immunosuppressive drug use after transplantation.
We thank Eric Claas for designing primers and probes of the HPyV9 and BKPyV PCR and Ann Vossen for fruitful discussions.
This work was supported in part by Dutch Kidney Foundation grant WO 2013.06/13A1D302.
- Figure 1. Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) DNA positivity and mean DNA viral load in transplant patients over time, the NetherlandsBars indicate percentage of HPyV9-positive patients; line indicates DNA loadTime points are...
- Figure 2. Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) seropositivity and seroreactivity in samples from transplant patients and healthy blood donor controls collected 1 year apart, the NetherlandsBlack bars, baseline samples; white bars, follow-up...
- Figure 3. Kaplan-Meier curves showing proportional increase of human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) DNA–positive and seropositive transplant patients during 12-month follow-up, the NetherlandsA) Cumulative HPyV9 DNA positivity (viremia) for transplant patients who...
- Figure 4. Association between human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9), BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among transplant patients, the NetherlandsA) Percentage of HPyV9 DNA–positive samples among samples that tested negative (white...
- Table 1. Characteristics of patients and controls for study of human polyomavirus 9 prevalence among kidney transplant patients, the Netherlands
- Table 2. Detection of human polyomavirus 9 DNA and viral loads in kidney transplant patients and blood donors, the Netherlands
Suggested citation for this article: van der Meijden E, Wunderink HF, van der Blij-de Brouwer CS, Zaaijer HL, Rotmans JI, Bouwes Bavinck JN, et al. Human polyomavirus 9 infection in kidney transplant patients. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Jun [date cited].http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2006.140055