Open Peer Review reports
Lineage relationship between prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma
© The Author(s). 2019
- Received: 4 March 2019
- Accepted: 7 May 2019
- Published: 30 May 2019
Prostate cancer displays different morphologies which, in turn, affect patient outcome. This fact prompted questions about the lineage relationship between differentiated, more treatable prostate adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated, less treatable non-adenocarcinoma including small cell carcinoma, and the molecular mechanism underlying prostate cancer differentiation.
Newly available non-adenocarcinoma/small cell carcinoma PDX LuCaP lines were analyzed for expression of stem cell transcription factors (scTF) LIN28A, NANOG, POU5F1, SOX2, which are responsible for reprogramming or de-differentiation. cDNA of these genes were cloned from small cell carcinoma LuCaP 145.1 into expression vectors to determine if they could function in reprogramming.
Expression of scTF was detected in small cell carcinoma LuCaP 93, 145.1, 145.2, and non-adenocarcinoma LuCaP 173.1, 173.2A. Transfection of scTF from LuCaP 145.1 altered the gene expression of prostate non-small cell carcinoma cells, as well as fibroblasts. The resultant cells grew in stem-like colonies. Of note was a 10-fold lower expression of B2M in the transfected cells. Low B2M was also characteristic of LuCaP 145.1. Conversely, B2M was increased when stem cells were induced to differentiate.
This work suggested a pathway in the emergence of non-adenocarcinoma/small cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma through activation of scTF genes that produced cancer de-differentiation.
- Small cell carcinoma
- Stem cell factors
- Cancer de-differentiation
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