CYP450 polymorphisms result in variable rates of drug metabolism. CYP drug-drug interactions can contribute to altered drug effectiveness and safety.
The primary objective was to determine the percentage of emergency department (ED) patients with cytochrome 2C19 (CYP2C19) drug-drug interactions. The secondary objective was to determine the prevalence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a US ED population.
We conducted a prospective observational study in an urban academic ED with 72,000 annual visits. Drug ingestion histories for the 48 hours preceding ED visit were obtained; each drug was coded as CYP2C19 substrate, inhibitor, inducer, or not CYP2C19 dependent. Ten percent of patients were randomized to undergo CYP2C19 genotyping using the Roche Amplichip.
A total of 502 patients were included; 61% were female, 65% were white, and median age was 39 years (interquartile range, 22-53). One hundred thirty-one (26.1%) patients had taken at least 1 CYP2C19-dependent home drug. Eighteen (13.7%) patients who were already taking a CYP2C19-dependent drug were given or prescribed a CYP2C19-dependent drug while in the ED. Among the 53 patients genotyped, 52 (98%) were extensive metabolizers and 1 was a poor metabolizer.
In a population of ED patients, more than a quarter had taken a CYP2C19-dependent drug in the preceding 48 hours, but few were given or prescribed another CYP2C19-dependent drug in the ED. On genotyping analysis, CYP2C19 polymorphisms were uncommon in our cohort. We conclude that changing prescribing practice due to CYP2C19 drug-drug interaction or genotype is unlikely to be useful in most US ED populations.
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