Metabolic Memory and Chronic Diabetes Complications: Potential Role for Epigenetic Mechanisms
Recent estimates indicate that diabetes mellitus currently affects more than ten percent of the world’s population. Evidence from both the laboratory and large scale clinical trials has revealed that prolonged hyperglycemia induces chronic complications which persist and progress unimpeded even when glycemic control is pharmaceutically achieved via the phenomenon of metabolic memory. The epigenome is comprised of all chromatin modifications including post translational histone modification, expression control via miRNAs and the methylation of cytosine within DNA. Modifications of these epigenetic marks not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to “memorize” these encounters. As such, these processes have gained much attention as potential molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic memory and chronic diabetic complications. Here we present a review of the very recent literature published pertaining to this subject.
Keywords: Chronic diabetic complications, epigenetics, metabolic memory