domingo, 29 de agosto de 2010

Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become comp... [Eur J Clin Invest. 2010] - PubMed result

Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become complex.
Wiebolt J, Koeleman BP, van Haeften TW.

Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Eur J Clin Invest 2010 Abstract The endocrine system is a frequent target in pathogenic autoimmune responses. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are the prevailing examples. When several diseases cluster together in one individual, the phenomenon is called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and primary immune deficiencies helped uncover the role of key regulators in the preservation of immune tolerance. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex have been known to contribute to the susceptibility to most forms of autoimmunity for more than 3 decades. Furthermore, sequencing studies revealed three non-major histocompatibility complex loci and some disease specific loci, which control T lymphocyte activation or signalling. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled acceleration in the identification of novel (non-HLA) loci and hence other relevant immune response pathways. Interestingly, several loci are shared between autoimmune diseases, and surprisingly some work in opposite direction. This means that the same allele which predisposes to a certain autoimmune disease can be protective in another. Well powered GWAS in type 1 diabetes has led to the uncovering of a significant number of risk variants with modest effect. These studies showed that the innate immune system may also play a role in addition to the adaptive immune system. It is anticipated that next generation sequencing techniques will uncover other (rare) variants. For other autoimmune disease (such as autoimmune thyroid disease) GWAS are clearly needed.

PMID: 20718847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become comp... [Eur J Clin Invest. 2010] - PubMed result

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