J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018 Dec;24(12):1250-1259. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2018.24.12.1250.
Clinical Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing and a Clinical Decision Support Tool to Enhance the Identification of Drug Therapy Problems Through Medication Therapy Management in Polypharmacy Patients.
In polypharmacy patients, medication therapy management (MTM) services provide a comprehensive review of current medications and future treatment goals. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) may further optimize the identification of potential drug therapy problems (DTPs); however, the clinical utility of PGx information with a clinical decision support tool (CDST) in an MTM setting in identifying DTPs has not been systematically assessed.
To assess the clinical utility of an MTM service enhanced by pharmacogenetic test results and a clinical decision support tool.
This study was a post hoc analysis of the data obtained from an open-label, randomized, observational trial. Polypharmacy patients eligible for MTM service were randomly assigned to 3 intervention arms: standard MTM (SMTM), MTM incorporating CDST (CMTM), and CMTM further enhanced by PGx test results of CYP450 and VKORC1 enzymes (PGxMTM). Allocation for this post hoc analysis was based on patient adherence to the research protocol and completion of a PGx test. The number of DTPs per patient was compared across the 3 arms using analysis of variance. In addition, the frequency of serious DTPs as a categorical variable (grade 3 or above vs. lower grade) was compared across the 3 arms between PGx driven and non-PGx driven DTP recommendations. Statistical significance was tested using the chi-square test. The level of agreement between the DTP seriousness and the acceptance made by prescribers was presented as Cohen's kappa coefficient.
Numbers of patients after cohort reallocation based on completion of PGx testing were 104, 180, and 58 for the SMTM, CMTM, and PGxMTM arms, respectively. On average, 3.08 DTPs were identified for each patient, which was nearly identical across all 3 arms. Blinded clinical pharmacists considered seriousness (grade 3 or 4) in 31% of the PGx-related DTPs in comparison with 4.9% of the non-PGx DTPs (P < 0.001). The more serious (i.e., grade 3 or above) DTP recommendations were more likely to be accepted by prescribers with the odds ratios of 1.95 (P = 0.05) and 2.39 (P = 0.15), when the analysis was performed for all DTPs and DTPs from the PGxMTM arm only, respectively.
MTM enhanced by PGx testing and the clinical decision support tool did not increase the number of DTPs identified. However, PGx testing and the decision support software helps pharmacists determine more serious DTPs, and resulting subsequent recommendations were more readily accepted by a prescriber. Future study of the patient safety outcomes and overall health care costs associated with the utility of the decision support is warranted.
No funding was received for conducting the post hoc analysis presented in this study. Magness is employed by Magellan Health, which received funding from Genelex for costs to administrate the medication management program. The open-label randomized trial was sponsored by Genelex (Clinicaltrials.gov ID number NCT02428660). PGx tests were provided and laboratory analysis was performed by Genelex. Valerie Baron is an employee of YouScript, which created the clinical decision support tool used in this study and formerly was part of Genelex. The other authors have nothing to disclose.
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