Cell Communication and Signaling
SOX2 as a novel contributor of oxidative metabolism in melanoma cells
Cell Communication and Signaling201816:87
© The Author(s). 2018
- Published: 22 November 2018
Deregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and recent evidence underlines that targeting tumor energetics may improve therapy response and patient outcome. Despite the general attitude of cancer cells to exploit the glycolytic pathway even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis or “Warburg effect”), tumor metabolism is extremely plastic, and such ability to switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) allows cancer cells to survive under hostile microenvironments. Recently, OxPhos has been related with malignant progression, chemo-resistance and metastasis. OxPhos is induced under extracellular acidosis, a well-known characteristic of most solid tumors, included melanoma.
To evaluate whether SOX2 modulation is correlated with metabolic changes under standard or acidic conditions, SOX2 was silenced and overexpressed in several melanoma cell lines. To demonstrate that SOX2 directly represses HIF1A expression we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assay.
In A375-M6 melanoma cells, extracellular acidosis increases SOX2 expression, that sustains the oxidative cancer metabolism exploited under acidic conditions. By studying non-acidic SSM2c and 501-Mel melanoma cells (high- and very low-SOX2 expressing cells, respectively), we confirmed the metabolic role of SOX2, attributing SOX2-driven OxPhos reprogramming to HIF1α pathway disruption.
SOX2 contributes to the acquisition of an aggressive oxidative tumor phenotype, endowed with enhanced drug resistance and metastatic ability.
- Tumor extracellular acidosis
- Oxidative metabolism