Oncotarget. 2018 Apr 17;9(29):20872-20890. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.25038. eCollection 2018 Apr 17.
The use of long non-coding RNAs as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.
Arriaga-Canon C1, De La Rosa-Velázquez IA2, González-Barrios R3, Montiel-Manríquez R3, Oliva-Rico D3, Jiménez-Trejo F4, Cortés-González C3, Herrera LA3.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The most used biomarker to detect prostate cancer is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), whose levels are measured in serum. However, it has been recently established that molecular markers of cancer should not be based solely on genes and proteins but should also reflect other genomic traits; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve this purpose. lncRNAs are transcripts of >200 bases that do not encode proteins and that have been shown to display abnormal expression profiles in different types of cancer. Experimental studies have highlighted lncRNAs as potential biomarkers for prognoses and treatments in patients with different types of cancer, including prostate cancer, where the PCA3 lncRNA is currently used as a diagnostic tool and management strategy. With the development of genomic technologies, particularly next-generation sequencing (NGS), several other lncRNAs have been linked to prostate cancer and are currently under validation for their medical use. In this review, we will discuss different strategies for the discovery of novel lncRNAs that can be evaluated as prognostic biomarkers, the clinical impact of these lncRNAs and how lncRNAs can be used as potential therapeutic targets.
long non-coding RNAs; precision medicine; prognosis; prostate cancer; therapeutic targets