jueves, 31 de mayo de 2018

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute | a/A/6

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute







1069 results found for: A
autologous neuroblastoma lysate/KLH-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with a cell lysate from an autologous neuroblastoma containing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which are conjugated to the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous neuroblastoma lysate/KLH-pulsed DC vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against neuroblastoma cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. KLH is an immunogenic carrier and serves as an immunostimulant to improve antigenic immune recognition and T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous NKG2D CAR-expressing T lymphocytes CM-CS1
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) encoding the human natural-killer group 2, member D receptor protein (NKG2D or KLRK1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon infusion back into the cancer patient, autologous NKG2D CAR-expressing T lymphocytes CM-CS1 specifically recognize and bind to tumor cells expressing NKG2D ligands. This induces lysis of NKG2D ligand-expressing tumor cells and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ligands for NKG2D, such as MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA), MICB, and members of the UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)/retinoic acid early transcript 1 (RAET1) family, are overexpressed on infected cells and most cancer cell types, but are not expressed on most normal, healthy cells. NKG2D, a dimeric, type II membrane protein expressed on human natural killer (NK) and T cells, promotes the elimination of NKG2D ligand-expressing cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous NSCLC DNA-transfected semi-allogeneic fibroblasts MRC-5 vaccine
A vaccine consisting of irradiated human fetal lung fibroblasts (Medical Research Council 5 or MRC-5) transfected with autologous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-derived DNA with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous NSCLC DNA-transfected semi-allogeneic fibroblasts MRC-5 vaccine expresses NSCLC tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in addition to MHC class I-determinants and the co-stimulatory molecule B7.1, which may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against NSCLC cells. The MRC-5 cell line, established in 1966, is a human diploid lung fibroblast cell line that is permissive for infection by a wide range of human viruses including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and coxsackie B viruses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous NSCLC peptide-specific dendritic cell vaccine
A personalized cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with immunogenic peptides derived from autologous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. During leukapheresis, mature DCs are loaded with autologous NSCLC-derived peptides. Upon re-administration of the NSCLC peptide-specific DC vaccine, the immune system is exposed to NSCLC-associated antigens. This results in the induction of a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against NSCLC cells and tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous NY-ESO-1 TCR-targeted T lymphocytes
A preparation of human autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced with a gene encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR-transduced autologous T cells recognize and bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of NY-ESO-1-positive tumor cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types, and is not, or is minimally, expressed in normal, healthy cells.
autologous NY-ESO-1-melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells
A preparation of autologous CD8+ (cytotoxic) T-lymphocytes sensitized to cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 antigen with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous CD8+ T-lymphocytes, isolated from a melanoma patient, are exposed to an NY-ESO-1 peptide ex vivo, expanded, and reintroduced into the patient; these tumor-reactive T-cells may stimulate a host immune response against tumor cells expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis, may be upregulated in various cancers, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous OFA-iLRP RNA-transfected dendritic cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous, mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with oncofetal antigen immature laminin receptor protein (OFA-iLRP) RNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, DCs in the OFA-iLRP RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine express, process, and present OFA-iLRP to the host immune system, which may mount a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against OFA-iLRP-expressing tumor cells. As a highly conserved protein, OFA-iLRP is preferentially expressed in fetal tissues and in many types of cancer, including hematopoietic malignancies, but is not detectable in normal differentiated adult cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous ovarian tumor cell lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous, irradiated dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with ovarian tumor cell lysate containing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous ovarian tumor cell lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against ovarian tumor cells expressing the patients ovarian tumor cell-specific TAAs, which may result in ovarian tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous oxidized ovarian tumor cell lysate vaccine
An autologous cancer vaccine composed of oxidized ovarian tumor cell lysate, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous oxidized ovarian tumor cell lysate vaccine exposes the immune system to an undefined amount of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may result in the induction of both anti-tumor cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and antibody-dependent responses against TAA-expressing cells, leading to tumor cell lysis. Compared to non-oxidized tumor cell lysate vaccines, oxidized tumor cell lysate vaccines induce necrotic cell death, increase the immunogenicity of the TAAs and may enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous PBLs retrovirally-transduced with TCRs targeting neoantigens
Autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for a patient's individual and unique mutated antigens, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Tumor cells are analyzed to identify and isolate specific mutated tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are expressed by the patient's tumor cells; then T-cell receptor coding sequences are engineered to target the patient's TAAs and inserted into retroviral vectors. After transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, neoantigen-specific TCRs retroviral vector-transduced autologous PBLs recognize and bind to tumor cells expressing the patient's neoantigens, which results in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the patient's tumor cells.
autologous PD-1 antibody-expressing mesothelin-specific CAR-T cells
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes that express an antibody that targets the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and are transduced with a gene encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mesothelin, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous PD-1 antibody expressing mesothelin specific CAR-T cells specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. The anti-PD-1 expressed on the CAR-T cells binds to PD-1 expressed on T cells and prevents the interaction of PD-1 with its ligand programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, PD-1L1; CD274) expressed on cancer cells, which prevents PD-1-mediated signaling and T-cell exhaustion, enhances T-cell activation, and results in enhanced toxicity in mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. PD-1, an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily transmembrane protein and inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates T-cell activation and overexpression within the tumor microenvironment and inhibits T-cell function. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.
autologous PD-1-targeted chimeric switch receptor-modified T lymphocytes
Autologous human T lymphocytes that are genetically engineered to express a chimeric switch receptor (CSR) composed of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the human inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1) fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic co-stimulatory signaling domains of CD28 (PD1CD28; PD-1:CD28 switch receptor), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon reintroduction of autologous PD-1-targeted CSR-modified T-lymphocytes into the patient, the switch receptor expressed by the engineered T cells targets and binds to the PD-1 ligands, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2) expressed, on tumor cells. The nature of the PD-1/CD28 switch receptor fusion protein prevents the normal PD1/PD-L1-mediated T-cell suppression and, instead, promotes signaling through the CD28 domain, which results in the stimulation of T lymphocytes. This induces enhanced toxicity against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-1 protein, found on activated T cells, negatively regulates T-cell activity; it plays a key role in immune evasion and prevents tumor cell lysis. Exchanging the transmembrane and intracellular domain of PD-1 with that of CD28 converts PD-L1 into a co-stimulation ligand of primary human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CD28, is a molecule expressed by T cells that stimulates increased T-lymphocyte proliferation and activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous PD-L1/CD80/CD86-targeted CAR-T cells
A preparation of autologous human T lymphocytes engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of a modified from of the human inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1), in which the intracellular signal domain of PD-1 is transformed to allow for stimulatory signaling but with an intact extracellular ligand binding domain that specifically binds the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and a modified form of the T-cell inhibitory receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), with a transformed intracellular signal domain to allow for stimulatory signaling, which specifically binds the B7 proteins CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Usually, ligand binding to PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibits T-cell activity; however, these modified forms of PD-1 and CTLA-4 promote T-cell stimulatory signaling. Upon administration, the autologous PD-L1/CD80/CD86-targeted CAR-T cells target and bind to PD-L1 expressed on certain tumor cells and to CD80/CD86 expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This stimulates T-cell activation, T-cell proliferation and enhanced cytokine production, which induces selective toxicity in tumor cells expressing PD-L1. PD-1, found on activated T cells, negatively regulates T-cell activity; it plays a key role in immune evasion and prevents tumor cell lysis. PD-L1 is often overexpressed on tumor cell types and plays a key role in immune evasion. The co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 play a key role in T-lymphocyte activation upon binding to CD28 upon antigen recognition; however, binding of CD80 and CD86 to wild-type CTLA-4 inhibits T-cell activity and results in T-cell exhaustion.
autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes cotransduced with retroviral vectors encoding inducible IL-12 and anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with two retroviral vectors, one encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and a second that encodes an inducible single-chain form of interleukin-12 (IL-12) driven by a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT)-responsive promoter, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Following isolation of lymphocytes, retroviral vector transduction, and expansion of the cells ex vivo, the inducible IL-12/anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR-expressing autologous PBLs are re-administered into the patient by intravenous injection. As the transduced PBLs traverse the patient's circulatory system, they can bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This binding activates the TCR signaling pathway in the transduced PBLs, which promotes NFAT-dependent gene transcription and induces expression of the cotransduced IL-12. IL-12 expression activates the immune system by promoting the secretion of interferon-gamma, activating natural killer cells (NKs), and inducing cytotoxic T-cell responses, which may result in both decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death for the NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types. NFAT, a family of transcription factors involved in immune responses, is activated by calcium signaling, which can occur downstream of TCR activation. Use of a retroviral vector to express an inducible IL-12 may remove the requirement for concomitant administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) that is a component of conventional cell transfer immunotherapies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous pluripotent ALDHbr stem cells ALD-451
A specific population of autologous, pluripotent bone marrow derived cells that express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with potential protective and neuro-cognition improving activity. Expression of high levels of ALDH is an indicator of the biological activity in heterogenous early stage stem cells. Upon intravenous administration, these ALDH bright cells may protect normal cells and may repair damaged cells. These cells may also protect brain cells from damage and may improve neurocognition. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous prostate cancer antigen-expressing dendritic cell vaccine BPX-101
A genetically-modified autologous dendritic cell-based vaccine expressing a drug-inducible costimulatory CD40 receptor (iCD40) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) are genetically modified to express the iCD40 receptor and are pulsed with tumor antigen. Upon intradermal administration, these DCs accumulate in local draining lymph nodes. Twenty-four hours after vaccination, the dimerizer agent AP1903 is administered; AP1903 binds to and activates iCD40 receptors presented on DC cell surfaces, thus activating the DCs and stimulating a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against host tumor cells that express the tumor antigen. This delayed activation strategy optimizes DC accumulation in local draining lymph nodes prior to DC activation. iCD40 contains a membrane-localized cytoplasmic CD40 domain fused to a drug-binding domain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous prostate stem cell antigen-specific CAR T cells BPX-601
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCRzeta) and a drug-induced co-stimulatory molecule, composed of an inducible, chimeric MyD88/CD40 (inducible MC; iMC) co-stimulatory domain, in which both the MyD88 and CD40 lack their extracellular domains, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of BPX-601, the T cells target and bind to PSCA-expressing cancer cells. Upon subsequent administration of the chemical inducer of dimerization (CID) agent rimiducid, this agent targets and binds to the drug binding domain, which leads to iMC expression, activation of both CD40- and MyD88-mediated signal transduction pathways, and an induction of selective cytotoxicity in, and eradication of PSCA-expressing cancer cells. iMC activation by rimiducid increases T-cell survival and anti-tumor activity of the administered T cells, compared to T cells without the drug iMC activation-switch. As these T cells are engineered to only be fully activated by binding to both antigen and rimiducid, T-cell proliferation, activity and toxicity can be controlled by adjusting the dose of rimiducid, thereby preventing uncontrolled T-cell activation which increases the safety of the administered T cells. PSCA is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface antigen overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous PSMA-specific TGFβ-resistant CAR T cells
Autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) single chain variable fragment (scFv) and expressing a dominant negative (DN) form of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta; TGFb) receptor, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the autologous PSMA-specific TGFb-resistant CAR T cells are directed to and induce selective toxicity in PSMA-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) PSMA is overexpressed by prostate cancers; its expression is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. The inclusion of the DN TGFb receptor blocks signaling of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGFb in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and makes the CAR T cells resistant to TGFb. TGFb negatively regulates T-cell proliferation and activation and plays a key role in tumor immune suppression.
autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor lysate-dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumor cell lysate containing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor lysate-dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against RCC tumor cells expressing RCC TAAs, resulting in RCC tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous sarcoma cell lysate
A cell lysate derived from sarcoma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, the autologous sarcoma cell lysate exposes the immune system to an undefined amount of sarcoma-type tumor associated antigens (TAA), which may result in the induction of both specific anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and antibody-dependent responses against the sarcoma TAA-expressing cells, resulting in sarcoma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous sarcoma lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from sarcoma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous sarcoma lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine exposes the immune system to an undefined amount of sarcoma-type tumor associated antigens (TAA), which may result in the induction of both specific anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and antibody-dependent responses against the sarcoma TAA-expressing cells, resulting in sarcoma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous T lymphocytes expressing NY-ESO-1-C259-specific enhanced T cell receptors
Human autologous lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous T lymphocytes expressing NY-ESO-1-C259-specific enhanced T cell receptors bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in the specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of NY-ESO-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types; the TCR is specific for SLLMWITQC, an NY-ESO-1-derived peptide, in a complex with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2 peptide. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous TCR-engineered T cells IMA201
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are genetically modified with a lentiviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for an as of yet not identified tumor-associated antigen (TAA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration back into the patient, the autologous TCR-engineered T cells IMA201 specifically recognize and bind to the TAA on cancer cells, which induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the TAA-positive cancer cells.
autologous tumor cell proteoliposome chronic lymphocytic leukemia vaccine
An autologous chronic lymphocytic leukemia cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific membrane proteins directly extracted from autologous tumor cells and incorporated into liposomes along with Interleukin 2 (IL-2) to produce membrane-patched proteoliposomes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. After subcutaneous injection of the autologous tumor cell proteoliposomes chronic lymphocytic leukemia vaccine, liposomes deliver the encapsulated tumor antigens into the cytosol of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Subsequently, the APCs process the antigens and present antigen-derived peptides to the immune system. This may enhance recognition of tumors by the immune system, and activate both cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD4+ helper T cells against tumor cells. IL-2 is incorporated into the vaccine to leverage its ability to expand activated T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous tumor cell vaccine
A therapeutic agent produced by isolating tumor cells from an individual and processing these tumor cells into a vaccine formulation in vitro; the vaccine is then administered to the individual from whom the tumor cells were isolated. Typically combined with an adjuvant immunostimulant, an autologous cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocytic immune response to cell surface-expressed tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes LN-144
A preparation of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), with potential antineoplastic activity. TILs are isolated from a patient's tumor tissue, cultured in vitro with high-dose interleukin-2 (lL-2), further selected based on antigen specificity and tumor reactivity, and the selected TILs are subsequently expanded. Upon re-introduction of LN-144 into the patient, the TILs re-infiltrate the tumor, specifically recognize the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), and initiate tumor cell lysis. IL-2 induces the proliferation and expansion of TILs in vitro. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes LN-145
A proprietary preparation of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), with potential immunomodulating activity. The autologous TILs are isolated from an autologous tumor sample and expanded ex vivo in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Upon infusion of the autologous TILs LN-145 back into the patient, the cells specifically recognize, target and kill the patient's tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous tumor-associated peptide antigen-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous DCs pulsed with specific tumor-associated peptide antigens (TAPA), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous TAPA-pulsed DC vaccine exposes the immune system to the specific TAPAs, which may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune responses against the TAPA-expressing cancer cells. This leads to cancer cell lysis. This vaccine is specific towards peptides derived from the following proteins: sperm autoantigenic protein 17 (SP17), ropporin, A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), pituitary tumor-transforming 1 (PTTG1) and SPANX family member B (SPANX-B). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous WT1-TCRc4 gene-transduced CD8-positive Tcm/Tn lymphocytes
Autologous, human CD8 T-lymphocytes, comprised of both central memory T-cells (Tcm) and naïve T-cells (Tn), that are transduced, ex vivo, with a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector encoding a high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCRc4) specific for the human tumor antigen Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) epitope 126-134 (RMFPNAPYL), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), transduction, expansion ex vivo, priming of the Tn subset, but not the Tcm subset, with interleukin-21 (IL-21), and reintroduction of equal amounts of Tcm and Tn cells into the patient, WT1-TCRc4 gene-transduced CD8-positive Tcm/Tn lymphocytes redirect T-lymphocytes to WT1-expressing tumor cells and specifically bind to and lyse those cells. This inhibits proliferation of WT1-expressing tumor cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding transcriptional regulator, is overexpressed in most leukemias and various solid tumors, while expression in normal, healthy tissues is very limited; its expression is correlated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AutoSynVax
(Other name for: neoantigen-HSP70 peptide cancer vaccine)
Avage
(Other name for: tazarotene)
avanafil
An orally available phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with vasodilatory activity. Avanafil selectively inhibits PDE5, thus inhibiting the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa of the penis. The inhibition of cGMP degradation results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, thereby prolonging penile erection. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Avandia
(Other name for: rosiglitazone maleate)
Avastin
(Other name for: bevacizumab)
avatrombopag maleate
The maleate salt form of avatrombopag, an orally available platelet thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR; MPL) agonist, with potential megakaryopoiesis stimulating activity. Upon administration, avatrombopag binds to and stimulates TPOR, which may lead to the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes from bone marrow progenitor cells. This increases the production of platelets and may prevent chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT). TPOR is a cytokine receptor and member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aveeno cream
(Other name for: colloidal oatmeal cream)
Avelox
(Other name for: moxifloxacin hydrochloride)
avelumab
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the human immunosuppressive ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, avelumab binds to PD-L1 and prevents the interaction of PD-L1 with its receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). This inhibits the activation of PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) targeted to PD-L1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, avelumab induces an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-1, a cell surface receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on T cells, negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligand, and plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. PD-L1, a transmembrane protein, is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cell types and is associated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Avemar
(Other name for: fermented wheat germ extract)
Aviane
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel)
Avinza
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
Avita
(Other name for: tretinoin)
avitinib maleate
The maleate salt form of avitinib, an orally available, irreversible, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-selective inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, avitinib covalently binds to and inhibits the activity of mutant forms of EGFR, including the drug-resistant T790M EGFR mutant, which prevents signaling mediated by mutant forms of EGFR. This may both induce cell death and inhibit tumor growth in EGFR-mutated tumor cells. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is mutated in a variety of cancers, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. As this agent is selective towards mutant forms of EGFR, its toxicity profile may be reduced when compared to non-selective EGFR inhibitors, which also inhibit wild-type EGFR. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Avlosulfon
(Other name for: dapsone)
Avmacol
(Other name for: broccoli sprout/broccoli seed extract supplement)
AVN944
An orally available, synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. AVN944 inhibits inosine monosphosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a purine molecule required for DNA and RNA synthesis. Inhibition of IMPDH deprives cancer cells of GTP, resulting in disruption of DNA and RNA synthesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis. AVN944 appears to have a selective effect on cancer cells in that deprivation of GTP in normal cells results in a temporary slowing of cell growth only. IMPDH is overexpressed in some cancer cells, particularly in hematological malignancies. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Avodart
(Other name for: dutasteride)
Avycaz
(Other name for: ceftazidime/avibactam sodium)
axicabtagene ciloleucel
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been transduced with a gammaretroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3 zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous infusion and re-introduction of axicabtagene ciloleucel into the patient, these cells bind to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen that is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3 zeta is one of several membrane-bound polypeptides found in the TCR/CD3 complex; it regulates both the assembly and cell surface expression of TCR complexes. CD28 is essential for CD4+ T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and T-helper type-2 (Th2) development. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
axitinib
An orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Axitinib inhibits the proangiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF), thereby exerting an anti-angiogenic effect. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AXL inhibitor BGB324
An orally available and selective inhibitor of the AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (UFO), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, BGB324 targets and binds to the intracellular catalytic kinase domain of AXL and prevents its activity. This blocks AXL-mediated signal transduction pathways and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which, in turn, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, BGB324 enhances chemo-sensitivity. AXL, a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases overexpressed by many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis; its expression is associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AXL kinase inhibitor TP-0903
An orally available and selective inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL (UFO), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, TP-0903 targets and binds to AXL and prevents its activity. This blocks AXL-mediated signal transduction pathways and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which, in turn, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, TP-0903 enhances chemo-sensitivity to certain other chemotherapeutic agents. AXL, a member of the Tyro3, AXL and Mer (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and overexpressed by many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis. Its expression is associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AXL/cMET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BPI-9016M
An orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL (UFO) and c-MET/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, AXL/c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BPI-9016M, binds to both AXL and c-MET, thereby disrupting both AXL- and c-MET-mediated signaling pathways. Altogether, this agent inhibits growth in AXL- and c-MET-overexpressing tumor cells. AXL, a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and c-MET, both overexpressed by many tumor cell types, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Axl/Mer inhibitor ONO-7475
An orally available and selective inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) Axl (UFO) and Mer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ONO-7475 targets and binds to both Axl and Mer, and prevents their activity. This blocks Axl- and Mer-mediated signal transduction pathways, and inhibits proliferation and migration of Axl- and Mer-overexpressing tumor cells. Axl and Mer, both members of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) family of RTKs, are overexpressed by many tumor cell types. They play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, and their expression is associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aygestin
(Other name for: norethindrone acetate)
azacitidine
A pyrimidine nucleoside analogue of cytidine with antineoplastic activity. Azacitidine is incorporated into DNA, where it reversibly inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby blocking DNA methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA by azacitidine may activate tumor suppressor genes silenced by hypermethylation, resulting in an antitumor effect. This agent is also incorporated into RNA, thereby disrupting normal RNA function and impairing tRNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Azactam
(Other name for: aztreonam)
azapicyl
A hydrazine compound that has been investigated for antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
azaserine
A naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic properties, Azaserine functions as a purine antagonist and glutamine analogue (glutamine amidotransferase inhibitor) that competitively inhibits pathways in which glutamine is metabolized. An antibiotic and antitumor agent, Azaserine is used in clinical studies as a potential antineoplastic agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AzaSite
(Other name for: azithromycin)
azathioprine sodium
The sodium salt form of azathioprine, a pro-drug of purine analogue with immunosuppressive activity. Azathioprine is converted in vivo to its active metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), which substitutes for the normal nucleoside and mistakenly gets incorporated into DNA sequences. This leads to inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. As a result, cell proliferation may be inhibited, particularly in lymphocytes and leukocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Azedra
(Other name for: cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131)
aziridinylbenzoquinone RH1
A water-soluble, synthetic aziridinylbenzoquinone with potential antineoplastic activity. Bioactivation of aziridinylbenzoquinone RH1 occurs through the two-electron reduction of the quinone to the hydroquinone by the two-electron quinone reductase DT-diaphorase (DTD). The resultant hydroquinone selectively alkylates and cross-links DNA at the 5'-GNC-3' sequence, inihibiting DNA replication, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. DTD is over-expressed in many tumors relative to normal tissue, including lung, colon, breast and liver tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
azithromycin
An azalide, derived from erythromycin, and a member of a subclass of macrolide antibiotics with bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic activities. Azithromycin reversibly binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit of the 70S ribosome of sensitive microorganisms, thereby inhibiting the translocation step of protein synthesis, wherein a newly synthesized peptidyl tRNA molecule moves from the acceptor site on the ribosome to the peptidyl (donor) site, and consequently inhibiting RNA-dependent protein synthesis leading to cell growth inhibition and cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Azixa
(Other name for: verubulin hydrochloride)
AZP
An aziridinyl-substituted cyclophosphazene and a putrescence derivative that may cause DNA cross-linkage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
aztreonam
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum with bactericidal activity. Aztreonam preferentially binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding protein-3 (PBP-3), which is involved in bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell wall integrity and leading to cell lysis and death. This agent differs from other beta-lactam antibiotics because it is resistant to beta-lactamase hydrolysis, and it is usually used to treat infections caused by gram-negative aerobic microorganisms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Azulfidine
(Other name for: sulfasalazine)
azurin-derived cell-penetrating peptide p28
A water-soluble, amphipathic, 28 amino acid (amino acids 50-77), 2.9 kD fragment peptide (p28) derived from the protein azurin with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Although the mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated, the preferential cellular uptake of azurin-derived cell-penetrating peptide p28 by tumor cells and endothelial cells is likely via caveolae-mediated endocytosis; the C-terminal 18 amino acid residues (50-67) appear to responsible for this preferential uptake. After cell entry, the first 12 amino acid residues interact with tumor suppressor p53 and form a p28:p53 complex, which may result in a reduction of proteasomal degradation of p53, increased p53 levels, and p53-mediated cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis. Azurin is a cupredoxin secreted by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are cationic and/or amphipathic peptides, typically less than 30 amino acids in length, that can penetrate cell membranes easily and may transport molecular cargo. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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