jueves, 31 de mayo de 2018

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute | p/P/2

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute



530 results found for: P
personalized polyepitope plasmid DNA breast cancer vaccine
A polyepitope DNA vaccine composed of a DNA plasmid encoding multiple, highly immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are specifically selected after genome profiling of the patient's breast cancer cells, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration and electroporation of the personalized polyepitope plasmid DNA breast cancer vaccine, the expressed TAAs induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells expressing the TAAs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
personalized synthetic long peptide breast cancer vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of one or more long, synthetic peptides derived from patient-specific breast cancer tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration of the personalized synthetic long peptide breast cancer vaccine, the peptides stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the TAAs, which results in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
personalized synthetic long peptide vaccine
A personalized peptide vaccine consisting of synthetic long peptides (SLPs), ranging from 20-35 amino acids in size, that are derived from two or more of the patient's tumor-specific mutant antigens (TSMAs), with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. A patient's tumor is isolated, TSMAs are identified, assessed and prioritized, and two or more TSMAs are selected to be further processed into SLPs. Upon administration, personalized SLP vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the TSMAs expressed by the tumor cells.
Pertofrane
(Other name for: desipramine hydrochloride)
pertuzumab
A humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of the antibody to the dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein directly inhibits the ability of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein (the most common pairing partner) to dimerize with other HER tyrosine kinase receptor proteins; inhibiting receptor protein dimerization prevents the activation of HER signaling pathways, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment
A petrolatum-based ointment absorbed by dry and moist skin, petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment is non-comedogenic, non-irritating, and non-sensitizing. It can reduce healing time of cracked, dry skin on hands, elbows, and knees, and helps prevent diaper rash. The original ointment also contained mineral oil, ceresin, lanolin alcohol. Its use is indicated in atopic dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis when extra protection from a heavier base is needed. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pevonedistat
A small molecule inhibitor of Nedd8 activating enzyme (NAE) with potential antineoplastic activity. Pevonedistat binds to and inhibits NAE, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and survival. NAE activates Nedd8 (Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8), an ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein that modifies cellular targets in a pathway that is parallel to but distinct from the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). Functioning in diverse regulatory activities, proteins conjugated to UBLs like Nedd8 typically are not targeted for proteasomal degradation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pexastimogene-devacirepvec
A thymidine kinase-deleted vaccinia virus expressing human GM-CSF (hGM-CSF) with oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral or intravenous administration, pexastimogene-devacirepvec may selectively infect and lyse tumor cells. While vaccinia displays a natural tumor cell tropism, deletion of the thymidine kinase gene increases the tumor selectivity of vaccinia by limiting viral replication to transformed cells. hGM-CSF expression by this agent may help recruit antigen processing cells (APCs), such as denritic cells and macrophages, to virally infected tumor cells, initiating a systemic antitumoral immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pexidartinib
A capsule formulation containing a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor of KIT, CSF1R and FLT3 with potential antineoplastic activity. Pexidartinib binds to and inhibits phosphorylation of stem cell factor receptor (KIT), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and down-modulation of macrophages, osteoclasts and mast cells involved in the osteolytic metastatic disease. FLT3, CSF1R and FLT3 are overexpressed or mutated in many cancer cell types and play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PGG beta-glucan
An injectable formulation of the polysaccharide beta 1,3/1,6 glucan derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. PGG beta-glucan binds to an alternate site on the neutrophil complement receptor 3 (CR3), priming the neutrophil to become cytotoxic when binding to complement on tumor cells via CR3. This agent has been reported to selectively activate immune cells without inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, potentially reducing potential side effects observed with the induction of broad innate immune responses. In addition, PGG beta-glucan may induce hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PGLA/PEG copolymer-based paclitaxel
A controlled-release, intratumoral paclitaxel formulation in which paclitaxel is incorporated into a thermosensitive, biodegradable triblock copolymer consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Upon intratumoral injection, paclitaxel is released slowly and continuously into tumor tissues from the gelled thermosensitive triblock copolymer over a period of 4 to 6 weeks; in tumor cells, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly-assembly dynamics of microtubules, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death. The thermosensitive triblock copolymer component of this formulation transforms from a water-soluble polymer at room temperature to a water-insoluble, biodegradable gel depot at body temperature; intratumoral controlled-release of paclitaxel from the gel minimizes systemic exposure to paclitaxel and the paclitaxel toxicity profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
P-glycoprotein inhibitor HM30181AK
An inhibitor of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), with adjuvant activity. Upon oral administration, P-gp inhibitor HM30181AK selectively binds to and inhibits the multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pump P-gp, which prevents the efflux of various chemotherapeutic agents from intestinal epithelial cells to the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to an increase in both oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. P-gp prevents the intestinal uptake and intracellular accumulation of various cytotoxic agents. HM30181AK is not systemically absorbed. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PH20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus VCN-01
An oncolytic, replication-competent adenovirus encoding the human glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme PH20 hyaluronidase with potential antitumor activity. After intratumoral administration, PH20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus VCN-01 selectively replicates in tumor cells, which may both cause oncolytic virus-induced cell death and induce the infection of adjacent tumor cells. In addition, the virus expresses hyaluronidase, which hydrolyzes and degrades the hyaluronic acid (HA) that coats tumor cells. The degradation of HA may result in a decrease for both the viscosity of the interstitial space and the tumor's interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). This increases viral spread and may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, HA degradation facilitates the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor. HA is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is frequently overproduced by various tumor cell types. The presence of HA in tumors correlates with increases in tumor cell growth, metastatic potential, tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Phaleria macrocarpa Extract DLBS-1425
An extract of the flesh from the fruit of Phaleria macrocarpa, an Indonesian herbal medicine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the active ingredients and exact components are unclear, gallic acid and its derivatives in DLBS-1425 appear to inhibit the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway by reducing PI3K transcription followed by a reduction in AKT phosphorylation. This extract also appears to induce apoptosis through induction of pro-apoptotic genes such as BAX, BAD and PUMA and inhibition of the apoptosis suppressor Bcl-2. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PHC
(Other name for: cholecalciferol/d-alpha tocopherol/L-selenomethionine/green tea extract/saw palmetto berry extract/daidzein/genistein/lycopene prostate health supplement)
Phellodendron amurense bark extract
A proprietary formulation consisting of a Phellodendron amurense (Amur cork tree) bark extract, often used in traditional Chinese medicine, with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Phellodendron amurense bark extract contains certain isoquinoline alkaloids, flavone glycosides and phenolic compounds. Upon administration of Phellodendron amurense bark extract, the various phytochemicals in this formulation modulate multiple signal transduction pathways. This agent appears to block the activation of the transcription factor cAMP response binding protein (CREB) and inhibits Akt signaling, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth and inducing apoptosis in Akt- and CREB-overexpressing cancer cells. In addition, this agent inhibits cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a)-mediated signaling; COX-2, NF-kB and TNF-a are upregulated in certain types of cancer and during inflammation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenelzine sulfate
A hydrazine derivative and a potent non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Phenelzine sulfate irreversibly binds to MAO, thereby blocking the oxidative deamination of monoamines resulting in an increased concentration of biogenic amines and a concurrent decrease in catabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. In addition, through its primary metabolite phenylethylidenehyrazine (PEH), phenelzine causes elevated GABA levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens thereby exerting its anxiolytic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Phenergan
(Other name for: promethazine hydrochloride)
phenethyl isothiocyanate
An isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with chemopreventive and potential antitumor activities. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC) was shown to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, possibly mediated through its metabolic intermediates, reactive oxygen species (ROS). PEITC also is able to activate ERK and JNK signal transduction, which in turn induces expression of stress-responsive genes. Specifically, this agent has been shown to reactivate gene expression of a detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase that is silenced in prostate carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenethyl isothiocyanate-containing watercress juice
A juice extracted from watercress containing high amounts of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), with potential chemopreventive and antitumor activities. Although the mechanism(s) of action through which PEITC exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, PEITC is able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, PEITC is able to modulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways, activating the expression of stress-responsive genes and eventually inducing apoptosis. PEITC also inhibits the expression of genes involved in tumor progression such as HIF, STAT-3, HER2, BCL-XL, and XIAP and induces the expression of genes involved in tumor suppression such as p53, ATF-2, and p57. Furthermore, this agent has been shown to reactivate the gene expression of certain detoxification enzymes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenformin hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of phenformin, an agent belonging to the biguanide class of antidiabetics with antihyperglycemic activity. Phenformin is not used clinically due to the high risk of lactic acidosis that is associated with its use. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenobarbital
A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of phenoxybenzamine, a synthetic, dibenzamine alpha-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. Phenoxybenzamine non-selectively and irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor in smooth muscle, thereby preventing vasoconstriction, relieving vasospasms, and decreasing peripheral resistance. Reflex tachycardia may occur and may be enhanced by blockade of alpha-2 receptors which enhances norepinephrine release. Phenoxybenzamine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phenprocoumon
An orally available, long-acting derivative of coumarin with anticoagulant activity. Upon administration, phenprocoumon inhibits the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme; inhibition of this enzyme prevents the formation of the reduced, active form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2), which is essential for the carboxylation of glutamate residues of vitamin K-dependent proteins. This prevents the activation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and the anticoagulant proteins C and S, which abrogates both thrombin production and thrombus formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phentolamine mesylate
The mesylate salt of a synthetic imidazoline with alpha-adrenergic antagonist activity. As a competitive alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine binds to alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and vasodilatation. This agent also may block 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and stimulate release of histamine from mast cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phosphatidylcholine-bound silybin
An oral preparation of the flavonoid silybin with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Silybin, also known as silibinin, is a mixture of two stereoisomers, denoted silybin A and silybin B, and is the major active constituent of silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silybin modulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated cellular efflux; has oxygen radical-scavenging effects; inhibits the arachidonic acid pathway; and inhibits various cytochrome P450 enzymes. This agent may also exhibit anti-angiogenic activity, possibly by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis via modulation of the transcription factor NF-kB, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and caspases. Complexing silybin with phosphatidylcholine increases its bioavailability. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phospholipid ether-drug conjugate CLR 131
A radiopharmaceutical composed of a mixture of proprietary phospholipid ethers (CLR 1404) that are covalently linked to the cytotoxic radioisotope iodine I 131 (iodine-131), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of CLR 131, the phospholipid ether (PLE) moiety is selectively taken up by lipid raft microdomains expressed on tumor cells and accumulates in the cytoplasm of tumor cells;. CLR 131 is not taken up by normal, healthy cells. This delivers cytotoxic iodine I 131 directly to and induces cell death in tumor cells. PLEs allows for targeted delivery of the radioisotope. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Phosphoral
(Other name for: sodium phosphate)
phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4126
A c-Myc antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) with potential antineoplastic activity. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4126 binds to c-Myc mRNA and blocks its translation, which may result in the death of tumor cells overexpressing c-Myc. Differing from traditional antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), neutrally charged PMOs are composed of subunits of nucleic acid bases linked to a synthetic backbone and, so, are less prone to enzymatic degradation. c-Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phosphorus P32
A radioactive isotope of phosphorus with beta particle-emitting radiocytotoxic activity. Emitted by phosphorus P32, beta particles directly damage cellular DNA and, by ionizing intracellular water to produce several types of cytotoxic free radicals and superoxides, indirectly damage intracellular biological macromolecules, resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Photochlor
(Other name for: HPPH)
photocyanine
A metal complex compound of phthalocyanide with photosensitizing activity. Upon injection with photocyanide and subsequent introduction to photodynamic therapy (PDT), photocyanide becomes activated and forms reactive oxygen species that induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Photolon
(Other name for: phytochlorin sodium-polyvinylpyrrolidone complex)
photosensitizer LUZ 11
A bacteriochlorin-based photosensitizer, with antineoplastic activity upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Following intravenous administration, the photosensitizer LUZ 11 preferentially accumulates in hyperproliferative tissues, such as tumors. Local application of laser light at the tumor site results in the absorption of light by this agent and a photodynamic reaction between LUZ 11 and oxygen. This results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which includes singlet oxygen molecules, the superoxide ion, and other cytotoxic free radicals. The formation of ROS induces free radical-mediated DNA damage and cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Phyllocontin
(Other name for: aminophylline)
phytochemical
The term 'phyto' originated from a Greek word meaning plant. Phytonutrients are certain organic components of plants, and these components are thought to promote human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and teas are rich sources of phytonutrients. Unlike the traditional nutrients (protein, fat, vitamins, minerals), phytonutrients are not 'essential' for life, so some people prefer the term 'phytochemical'. (USDA Agricultural Research Service) Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phytochlorin sodium-polyvinylpyrrolidone complex
A photosensitizer composed of the sodium salt form of chlorin e6 and its derivatives complexed with a low-molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer component, with diagnostic and antineoplastic activities upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Upon intravenous administration, the photosensitizer phytochlorin-PVP sodium complex preferentially accumulates in hyperproliferative tissues, such as tumors. Local application of light with a certain wavelength to the tumor site results in the absorption of light by this agent, leading to its photoactivation. This results in a photodynamic reaction between phytochlorin and oxygen, which causes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen molecules, the superoxide ion, and other cytotoxic free radicals. The formation of ROS induces free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage followed by apoptosis of tumor cells. Chlorin e6-PVP is able to penetrate deeply into tissues and is therefore able to treat hard-to-reach tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
phytonadione
An analogue of the naphthoquinone vitamin K found in plants. The vitamins K are essential for blood coagulation as it is necessary for the hepatic synthesis of the coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X; deficiency results in a bleeding diathesis. These vitamins are lipo-soluble; absorption via intestinal lymphatics requires the presence of bile salts. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K alpha inhibitor MLN1117
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha inhibitor MLN1117 selectively inhibits PI3K alpha kinase, including mutations of PIK3CA, in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K alpha-expressing tumor cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K alpha, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in promoting tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; PIK3CA, one of the most highly mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K alpha/beta inhibitor BAY1082439
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and beta isoforms with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/beta inhibitor BAY1082439 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha, including mutated forms of PIK3CA, and PI3K beta in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K-expressing and/or PTEN-driven tumor cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K alpha and beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in increased tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PIK3CA, one of the most highly mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K alpha/mTOR inhibitor PWT33597 mesylate
The mesylate salt form of PWT33597, an orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/mTOR dual inhibitor PWT33597 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K delta inhibitor HMPL 689
An orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (phosphoinositide 3'-kinase delta; PI3Kd; PI3K-d), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PI3K-delta inhibitor HMPL 689 selectively binds to and inhibits PI3Kd, and prevents the activation of the PI3Kd/AKT signaling pathway, and B-cell activation. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3Kd-overexpressing tumor cells. PI3Kd plays a key role in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and the proliferation of hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3Kd is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells and thereby to minimize serious side effects. PI3Kd, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K delta inhibitor ME-401
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PI3K-delta inhibitor ME-401 selectively inhibits the delta isoform of PI3K and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-delta-overexpressing tumor cells. PI3K-delta plays a key role in the proliferation and survival of hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor RP6530
An orally active, highly selective, small molecule inhibitor of the delta and gamma isoforms of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor RP6530 inhibits the PI3K delta and gamma isoforms and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT-mediated signaling pathway. This may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K delta/gamma-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent modulates inflammatory responses through various mechanisms, including the inhibition of both the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activity. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the delta and gamma isoforms are overexpressed primarily in hematologic malignancies and in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. By selectively targeting these isoforms, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally impacted or not affected at all, which minimizes the side effect profile for this agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor ACP-319
An orally available inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor ACP-319 inhibits PI3K, which prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT (protein kinase B)-mediated signaling pathway. This results in the inhibition of growth and survival of PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis.
PI3K inhibitor BGT226
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor BGT226 specifically inhibits PIK3 in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability; apoptotic cell death may ensue. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family of proteins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor GDC-0077
An orally available inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GDC0077 binds to and inhibits various members of the PI3K family, including activating mutations in the catalytic alpha isoform PIK3CA. PI3K inhibition prevents the activation of the PI3K-mediated signaling pathway and results in the inhibition of growth and survival of PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy. PIK3CA, which encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K, is frequently mutated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays a key role in cancer cell growth and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor GDC-0084
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GDC-0084 specifically inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway. This may result in the inhibition of both cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 bismesylate
The orally bioavailable bismesylate salt of a potent small-molecule thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) isoforms p100alpha and p100delta with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 selectively binds to PI3K isoforms in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of tumor cell growth, motility and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations may result. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis; dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor GSK1059615
A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GSK1059615 inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane and an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability, followed by apoptosis. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. PIK3, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor GSK2126458
A small-molecule pyridylsulfonamide inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GSK2126458 binds to and inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and inducing apoptotic cell death. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family of proteins. PI3K, often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor PX-866
A small-molecule wortmannin analogue inhibitor of the alpha, gamma, and delta isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor PX-866 inhibits the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor WX-037
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor WX-037 specifically inhibits PI3K, which prevents the activation of the PI3K/protein kinase B-mediated signaling pathway. This may result in the inhibition of both tumor cell growth and survival in PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474
An orally available, s-triazine derivative, ATP-competitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 inhibits all four PI3K isoforms. Inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway results in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. This agent does not induce apoptosis but rather induces strong G(0)/G(1) arrest, which might contribute to its favorable efficacy in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K p110beta/delta inhibitor KA2237
A dual selective inhibitor of the beta and delta isoforms of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class I phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-beta/delta, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K-beta/delta inhibitor KA2237 selectively inhibits the PI3K-beta and -delta isoforms and prevents their activation, which inhibits PI3K-beta/delta-mediated signal transduction pathways. This decreases proliferation and induces cell death in susceptible tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-beta and -delta are overexpressed primarily in solid and hematological tumor cells and play crucial roles in tumor cell survival, and immunoregulation. The targeted inhibition of these PI3Ks allows this agent to potentially be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors, which also affect normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/HDAC inhibitor CUDC-907
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class I and pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CUDC-907 inhibits the activity of both PI3K class I isoforms and HDAC, thereby preventing the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway that is often overactivated in many cancer cell types. This may prevent growth of PI3K and/or HDAC-expressing tumor cells. CUDC-907 shows an increased inhibition of tumor cell growth and induction of apoptosis when compared to inhibitors that target either PI3K or HDAC. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR dual kinase inhibitor XL765
An orally bioavailable small molecule targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinases in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR dual kinase inhibitor XL765 inhibits both PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated in a PI3K-independent fashion in response to nutrient and energy deprivation. Accordingly, this agent maybe more potent compared to an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR inhibitor LY3023414
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of certain class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms and mammalian target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR inhibitor LY3023414 inhibits both certain PI3K isoforms and mTOR in an ATP-competitive manner which may inhibit both the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway in and proliferation of tumor cells overexpressing PI3K and/or mTOR. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is upregulated in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, and survival, motility and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated in a PI3K-independent fashion; therefore, this agent may be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K or mTOR alone. In addition, LY3023414 may inhibit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), thereby inhibiting the ability of tumor cells to repair damaged DNA. DNA-PK is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor BEZ235
An orally bioavailable imidazoquinoline targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 inhibits PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR kinase signaling pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor DS-7423
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor DS-7423 inhibits both PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Consequently, this agent may potentially be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor PF-04691502
An agent targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor PF-04691502 inhibits both PI3K and mTOR kinases, which may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition of cancer cells overexpressing PI3K/mTOR. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor VS-5584
A potent and selective inhibitor of both phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor VS-5584 inhibits mTOR kinase and all class I PI3K isoforms. Consequently, this disrupts phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PI3K and mTOR and may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, which also has PI3K-independent activity. Consequently, this agent may potentially be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTOR/ALK-1/DNA-PK inhibitor P7170
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PI3K/mTOR/ALK-1/DNA-PK inhibitor P7170 inhibits the activity of all four kinases. This prevents PI3K/mTOR and ALK-1-mediated signaling pathways and may lead to the inhibition of cancer cell growth in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells and angiogenesis in ALK-1-overexpressing endothelial cells. Also, by inhibiting DNA-PK, this agent inhibits the ability of tumor cells to repair damaged DNA. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is upregulated in a variety of tumors and plays an important role in regulating cancer cell proliferation, growth, and survival. ALK-1, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) type I receptor family, is overexpressed on endothelial cells in a variety of tumor types and increases endothelial cell proliferation and migration. DNA-PK is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K/mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor DCBCI0901
An inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), raptor-mTOR (mTOR complex 1 or mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTOR complex 2 or mTORC2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, PI3K/mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor DCBCI0901 binds to and inhibits PI3K as well as both mTORC1 and mTORC2, which may result in both apoptosis and a decrease in cell proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing PI3K, mTORC1, and mTORC2. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independently of PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3Ka/mTOR inhibitor PKI-179
A second generation, small-molecule mimetic of ATP that targets the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with potential antineoplastic activity. PKI-179 selectively inhibits mTOR and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) alpha. By inhibiting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3Kalpha inhibitor AZD8835
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha inhibitor AZD8835 selectively binds to and inhibits PIK3CA and its mutated forms, in the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. This results in both apoptosis and growth inhibition in PIK3CA-expressing tumor cells. By specifically targeting PIK3CA, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is often found in solid tumors and results in the promotion of tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy. PIK3CA, one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3Kbeta inhibitor AZD8186
An inhibitor of the beta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PI3Kbeta inhibitor AZD8186 selectively inhibits the activity of PI3Kbeta in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which may result in a decrease of tumor cell proliferation. It also induces cell death in PI3K-expressing cancer cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. PI3K-mediated signaling is often dysregulated in cancer cells and contributes to increased tumor cell growth, survival, and tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K-beta inhibitor GSK2636771
An orally bioavailable, substituted benzimidazole inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) beta isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K beta inhibitor GSK2636771 selectively inhibits PI3K beta kinase activity in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K beta-expressing and/or PTEN-driven tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in the promotion of tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PI3K beta is the p110-beta catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K-beta Inhibitor SAR260301
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) beta isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K beta inhibitor SAR260301 selectively inhibits PI3K beta kinase activity in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K beta-expressing and/or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and contributes to increased tumor cell growth, tumor cell survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PI3K beta is the p110-beta catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K-delta inhibitor AMG 319
A highly selective, potent, and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of the delta isoform of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. PI3K-delta inhibitor AMG 319 prevents the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway through inhibition of the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), thus decreasing proliferation and inducing cell death. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3Kdelta inhibitor INCB040093
An orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class I phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3Kdelta inhibitor INCB040093 specifically inhibits PI3Kdelta, which prevents both the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and the activation of the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway. This decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3Kdelta is often overexpressed in tumor cells, especially those of hematologic origin, and plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. The targeted inhibition of PI3Kdelta allows for PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K-delta inhibitor INCB050465
An inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K-delta inhibitor INCB050465 inhibits the delta isoform of PI3K and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-delta-overexpressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic disease and cell lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI3K-gamma inhibitor IPI-549
An orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the gamma isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-gamma) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, IPI-549 prevents the activation of the PI3K-gamma-mediated signaling pathways, which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K-gamma-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent is able to modulate anti-tumor immune responses and inhibit tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the gamma isoform is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and immune cells; its expression increases tumor cell proliferation and survival. By selectively targeting the gamma isoform, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally or not affected, which results in a reduced side effect profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PI-88
A mixture of highly sulfated, monophosphorylated mannose oligosaccharides, derived from the extracellular phosphomannan of the yeast Pichia (Hansenula) holstii, with potential antiangiogenic activity. Heparanase inhibitor PI-88 inhibits the endo-beta-D-glucuronidase heparanase, which may interfere with the heparanase-mediated degradation of heparan-sulfate proteoglycans in extracellular matrices, an important step in the metastatic process. This agent may also bind with high affinity to the heparan sulfate-binding domains of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2, thereby reducing their functional activities and inhibiting VEGF and FGF stimulation of tumor angiogenesis. Increased heparanase activity has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pibenzimol
A fluorescent dye of benzimidazole derivative. Pibenzimol binds to AT-specific sites in the minor groove of duplex DNA and inhibits topoisomerase I, and DNA polymerase, thereby preventing DNA replication. This agent prolongs the G2 phase of the cell cycle and initiates apoptosis in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pibrozelesin
A semisynthetic water-soluble derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic duocarmycin B2. Activated by carboxyl esterase, pibrozelesin alkylates DNA by binding to adenine-thymine (A-T)-rich sequences in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Picato
(Other name for: ingenol mebutate gel)
picibanil
A lyophilized formulation containing cultures of a low-virulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, treated and killed with pencillin G, with potential sclerosing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Besides its activity as a sclerosing agent, picibanil appears to have multiple effects on the immune system as a non-specific immunostimulant. This agent activates the host immune system by stimulating the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, and by enhancing the production of several key immune mediators, including interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
picoplatin
A new generation organic platinum analog with an extended spectrum of antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome platinum drug resistance, picoplatin alkylates DNA, forming both inter- and intra-strand cross-linkages, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, and the induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
picropodophyllin
A cyclolignan alkaloid found in the mayapple plant family (Podophyllum peltatum), and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Picropodophyllin specifically inhibits the activity and downregulates the cellular expression of IGF1R without interfering with activities of other growth factor receptors, such as receptors for insulin, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT). This agent shows potent activity in the suppression o f tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in the growth and survival of many types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pidilizumab
A humanized, immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against human inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Pidilizumab binds to PD-1 and blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2). This prevents the activation of PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumor cells. PD-1, an inhibitory receptor belonging to the B7-receptor family expressed on activated T-lymphocytes, B-cells and NK cells, negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands; it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pilocarpine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of a natural alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus Pilocarpus with cholinergic agonist activity. As a cholinergic parasympathomimetic agent, pilocarpine predominantly binds to muscarinic receptors, thereby inducing exocrine gland secretion and stimulating smooth muscle in the bronchi, urinary tract, biliary tract, and intestinal tract. When applied topically to the eye, this agent stimulates the sphincter pupillae to contract, resulting in miosis; stimulates the ciliary muscle to contract, resulting in spasm of accomodation; and may cause a transitory rise in intraocular pressure followed by a more persistent fall due to opening of the trabecular meshwork and an increase in the outflow of aqueous humor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PIM kinase inhibitor LGH447
An orally available pan-PIM protein kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PIM kinase inhibitor LGH447 binds to and inhibits the activities of PIM-1, -2 and -3 serine/threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 protein, and tumor cell apoptosis in cells that overexpress PIMs. PIM kinases, downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways, play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776
A small-molecule pan-Pim protein kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 binds to and inhibits the activities of Pim-1, -2 and -3, serine-threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl2 proteins and tumor cell apoptosis. PIM kinases play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PIM/FLT3 kinase inhibitor SEL24
An orally available inhibitor of PIM family serine/threonine protein kinases and mutant forms of FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; STK1) with potential antineoplastic activity. PIM/FLT3 kinase inhibitor SEL24 binds to and inhibits the kinase activities of PIM-1, -2 and -3, and mutant forms of FLT3, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, an inhibition of cell proliferation, and an induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress PIMs or express mutant forms of FLT3. FLT3, a tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed or mutated in various cancers, plays a role in signaling pathways that regulate hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, and in leukemic cell proliferation and survival. PIM kinases, downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways, including the FLT3 signaling pathway, play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pimasertib
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Pimasertib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1/2 (MAP2K1/K2) are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pimecrolimus cream
A 33-epi-chloro-derivative of the ascomycin macrolactam with immunosuppressant properties. Pimecrolimus binds to the receptor macrophilin-12 (FKBP-12) forming a complex that blocks the calcium-dependent signal transduction cascade mediated by calcineurin. Via dephosphorylation, calcineurin is the enzyme responsible for activating nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a T cell transcriptional regulatory factor. As a consequence, the synthesis and release of Th1- (T helper 1) and Th2- (T helper 2) type cytokines, and other inflammatory mediators from T-cells and mast cells are blocked and the expression of signals essential for the activation of inflammatory T-lymphocytes is inhibited. However, pimecrolimus mode of action is cell-selective and does not affect Langerhans' cells/dendritic cells and primary fibroblasts. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pimonidazole
A nitroimidazole with hypoxic selectivity and radiosensitizing property. Pimonidazole is reduced in hypoxic environments as in tumor cells, thereby it can be used as an hypoxia marker. In hypoxic cells, reduced pimonidazole binds to -SH-containing molecules such as glutathione and proteins, and the resulting complexes accumulated in tissues, thereby sensitizing cells to be more susceptible for radiation treatment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pimonidazole hydrochloride
A substituted nitroimidazole salt. Hypoxic cells bioreductively activate and bind pimonidazole. This agent may be used as a hypoxia marker for detecting oxygen gradients in living tissues. Pimonidazole also exhibits radiosensitizing properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pinaverium bromide
An orally available bromide salt form of pinaverium, a calcium channel blocker (CCB) with antispasmodic activity. Upon oral administration, pinaverium blocks the voltage-dependent calcium channels and inhibits calcium ion influx into the smooth muscle cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This prevents smooth muscle contraction and relaxes the GI tract. In addition, pinaverium may both reduce bowel uptake of and facilitate the function of locally active, co-administered drugs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pioglitazone hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of an orally-active thiazolidinedione with antidiabetic properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, thereby inducing cell differentiation and inhibiting cell growth and angiogenesis. This agent also modulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes, inhibits macrophage and monocyte activation, and stimulates adipocyte differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piperacillin sodium
The sodium salt of piperacillin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic, ampicillin-derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Piperacillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piperazinedione
A crystalline antibiotic fermentation product isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseoluteus with antineoplastic activity. Piperazinedione alkylates DNA at the N-7 position of guanine, inhibiting DNA replication and inducing cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piperine extract (standardized)
A standardized extract containing the active alkaloid piperine, derived from the fruit of the plant Piper nigrum (black pepper) and/or the plant Piper longum L. (long pepper), with thermogenic properties. Co-ingestion of piperidine enhances the bioavailability of various nutrients, including beta-carotene, curcumin, selenium, pyridoxine and coenzyme Q10. In addition, this agent may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities and may enhance the production of serotonin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pipracil
(Other name for: piperacillin sodium)
pirarubicin
An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Pirarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and exhibits activity against some doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pirfenidone
An orally active synthetic antifibrotic agent structurally similar to pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate. Pirfenidone inhibits fibroblast, epidermal, platelet-derived, and transforming beta-1 growth factors, thereby slowing tumor cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits DNA synthesis and the production of mRNA for collagen types I and III, resulting in a reduction in radiation-induced fibrosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piritramide
A diphenylpropylamine and opioid receptor agonist, with analgesic activity. Upon administration, piritramide binds to and activates mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of endogenous opioids and producing analgesic relief. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piritrexim
A synthetic antifolate agent with antiparasitic, antipsoriatic and antitumor properties. Piritrexim inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, thereby disrupting folate metabolism and DNA synthesis and cell division. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pirotinib
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB; EGFR) family, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pirotinib selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptors 1 (ErbB1; EGFR), 2 (ErbB2; HER2), and 4 (ErbB4; HER4). This may result in the inhibition of cell growth and angiogenesis in tumors overexpressing these RTKs. EGFRs play major roles in both tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization, and are overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piroxantrone
An anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Piroxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Although less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin, this agent exhibits a narrow spectrum of antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
piroxicam
A nonsteroidal oxicam derivative with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties. As a non-selective, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), piroxicam binds and chelates both isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2), thereby stalling phospholipase A2 activity and conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin precursors at the rate limiting cyclooxygenase enzyme step. This results in inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. As a second, independent effect, piroxicam inhibits the activation of neutrophils thereby contributing to its overall anti-inflammatory effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pIRS2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine
A vaccine composed of a phosphorylated peptide from the tumor associated antigen insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pIRS2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pIRS2 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against phosphopeptide-containing tumor cells. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response which may help stimulate an immune response against the pIRS2-expressing melanoma tumor cells. IRS2 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pitocin
(Other name for: recombinant oxytocin)
pixantrone dimaleate
The dimaleate salt of a synthetic, noncardiotoxic aza-anthracenedione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Pixantrone intercalates into DNA and induces topoisomerase II-mediated DNA strand crosslinks, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
placebo
An inactive substance, treatment or procedure that is intended to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol of a clinical trial. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pladienolide derivative E7107
A synthetic urethane derivative of pladienolide D with potential antineoplastic activity. Pladienolide derivative E7107 is generated from the 12-membered macrolide pladienolide D, one of several macrolides derived from the bacterium Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107. This agent appears to bind to the 130-kDa subunit 3 (spliceosome-associated protein 130; SAP130) of the splicing factor 3b (SF3b), resulting in inhibition of pre-messenger RNA splicing and the arrest of cell-cycle progression. The splicing factor SF3b is a multiprotein complex integral to the accurate excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA; the subunit SAP130 associates with U2 snRNP and is recruited to prespliceosomal complexes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Plan B
(Other name for: levonorgestrel)
plant-derived hematopoiesis enhancer PG2
A proprietary botanical formulation derived from a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) plant with hematopoietic activity. Although the mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, plant-derived hematopoiesis enhancer PG2 appears to stimulate multi-lineage progenitor cells that may be closely related to the hematopoietic stem cell. In both chemotherapy- and radiation therapy-induced animal models of myelosuppression, this agent has been shown to restore granulocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts to normal levels. Plant-derived hematopoiesis enhancer PG2 stimulates the production of numerous cytokines such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and may stimulate the production of neuroendocrine hormones. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plasmacytoid dendritic cell vaccine
A whole cell vaccine derived from a distinct subset of dendritic cells (DCs) with a plasma cell-like morphology that exhibits immunomodulating activity. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) express a characteristic set of surface markers, such as CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain), BDCA-2 (blood dendritic cell antigen 2; CD303) and BDCA-4 (CD304), as well as intracellular toll-like receptors 7 and 9. Upon stimulation, the activated pDCs produce substantial amounts of interferon (IFN) alpha, and to a lesser degree IFN-beta, as well as other cytokines and chemokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1, 6 and 8. In addition, these pDCs, directly or indirectly stimulate T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells. This may potentially lead to increased immunity against tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plasmid encoding antiangiogenic metargidin peptide
A plasmid encoding the protein antiangiogenic metargidin plasmid (AMEP), the disintegrin domain of ADAM-15 (metargidin), with potential antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activities. Upon intratumoral electrotransfer of plasmid encoding AMEP, AMEP binds to cellular integrin receptors alpha-v-beta-3 (avb3) and alpha-5-beta-1 (a5b1), which are upregulated on activated endothelial cells and a variety of tumor cells. Binding to the integrin receptors may inhibit angiogenesis and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Plavix
(Other name for: clopidogrel bisulfate)
PLED-based MnSOD mimetic
A derivative of pyridoxyl ethyldiamine (PLED) and mimetic of the human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), with antioxidant, metal chelating and potential chemoprotective activities. Upon administration, PLED-based MnSOD mimetic mimics MnSOD and scavenges oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, thereby preventing oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA and minimizing oxygen free radical-related chemotoxicity in normal tissues. In addition, this agent is able to strongly bind to iron. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pleiotropic pathway modifier CC-122 hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of CC-122, an orally available pleiotropic pathway modulator with potential antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plerixafor
A bicyclam with hematopoietic stem cell-mobilizing activity. Plerixafor blocks the binding of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1alpha) to the cellular receptor CXCR4, resulting in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) release from bone marrow and HSC movement into the peripheral circulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plevitrexed
An orally bioavailable, small molecule, non-polyglutamatable, antifolate quinazoline derivative thymidine synthetase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Plevitrexed is transported into the cell via the physiological reduced folate carrier (RFC) system. Intracellularly, this agent selectively binds to the folate binding site of thymidylate synthase and inhibits thymidine synthesis, which may result in DNA synthesis inhibition and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plicamycin
An antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces plicatus with antineoplastic activity. Plicamycin, also known as mithramycin, binds to the minor groove of DNA at GC-rich sites, resulting in inhibition of RNA synthesis; this agent also inhibits mRNA expression, resulting in a reduction in protein synthesis. In addition, plicamycin may inhibit bone resorption by down regulating transcription of c-src, an oncogene involved in bone metabolism and resorption. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plinabulin
An orally active diketopiperazine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Plinabulin selectively binds to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, thereby interrupting equilibrium of microtubule dynamics; mitotic spindle assembly is disrupted, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the M phase and blockage of cell division in tumor cells. In addition, this agent induces tubulin depolymerization in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in the disruption of tumor blood vessel architecture and a selective collapse of tumor vasculature. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plitidepsin
A cyclic depsipeptide isolated from the marine tunicate Aplidium albicans. Plitidepsin displays a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, inducing apoptosis by triggering mitochondrial cytochrome c release, initiating the Fas/DC95, JNK pathway and activating caspase 3 activation. This agent also inhibits elongation factor 1-a, thereby interfering with protein synthesis, and induces G1 arrest and G2 blockade, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PLK1 inhibitor PCM-075
An orally bioavailable, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitor of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1; PLK-1; STPK13), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PLK1 inhibitor PCM-075 selectively binds to and inhibits PLK1, which disrupts mitosis and induces selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in PLK1-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine kinase that is crucial for the regulation of mitosis, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. PLK1 expression is upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and high expression is associated with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PLK1 inhibitor TAK-960
An orally available, Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor TAK-960 selectively inhibits PLK1, inducing selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell-cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 stages without apoptosis in normal cells. PLK1 inhibition may result in the inhibition of proliferation in PLK1-overexpressed tumor cells. PLK1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine kinase crucial in the regulation of mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
plozalizumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), with potential antiangiogenic, immunomodulating, antimetastatic, and antineoplastic activities. Plozalizumab binds to CCR2 and prevents binding of the endothelium-derived CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or MCP1) to its receptor CCR2, which may result in inhibition of CCR2 activation and so inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, and tumor cell proliferation. In addition, this agent may reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). The G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 is expressed on the surface of monocytes and macrophages, stimulates the migration and infiltration of these cell types, and plays an important role in inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PM00104
A synthetic tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid related to the marine natural compounds Jorumycin and the family of Renieramycins, obtained from molluscs and sponges, respectively, with potential antineoplastic activity. PM00104 reversibly binds to DNA and interferes with DNA replication, transcription, and translation. DNA binding by this agent does not trigger DNA damage checkpoint responses, hence PM00104 exhibits a reversible cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine
A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing 13 different strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, used in children and studied in immunocompromised patients for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. The pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine contains capsular antigen polysaccharides derived from the S. pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F that are individually conjugated to a nontoxic diphtheria cross-reactive material (CRM) carrier protein (CRM197). Upon vaccination, pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine induces active immunization against 13 different serotypes of S. pneumoniae and protects against pneumococcal disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine
An active immunizing agent used to prevent infection by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine consists of a solution of saccharides of the capsular antigens of Streptococcus serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F individually conjugated to diphtheria CRM 197 protein. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine
An polyvalent vaccine used to prevent infection by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine contains higly purified capsular antigens from the 23 most prevalent or invasive pneumococcal types of Streptococcus pneumoniae to ensure cross-protection. Following vaccination, protective capsular type-specific antibody levels typically develop by the third week; serotype-specific antibody levels generally decline after 5-10 years. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pneumovax 23
(Other name for: pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine)
pNGVL3-hICD vaccine
A plasmid DNA cancer vaccine encoding the intracellular domain (ICD) of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene. Upon administration and after cellular uptake by skin or muscle cells, the pNGVL3-hICD vaccine plasmid expresses the HER-2/neu protein, which, after intracellular processing, may elicit both antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and humoral immune responses against tumor cells expressing HER-2. The HER-2/neu ICD protein is highly immunogenic and, as a subdominant epitope, may be associated with decreased immune tolerance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of the DNA plasmid pNGVL4a-A encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to a detox form of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 antigen, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, this vaccine may generate a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against E7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death. For E7(detox), the amino acids in E7 at positions 24 (cysteine to glycine) and 26 (glutamic acid to glycine) were substituted. CRT, a 46 kDa protein located in the lumen of the cell's endoplasmic reticulum (ER), may potentiate MHC class I presentation of HPV-16 E7 to E7-specific CD8-positive T cells. In addition, pNGVL4a-A contains two short immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS) in the noncoding region, which may elicit the production of IFN- and IL-12 in transfected keratinocytes and dermal antigen presenting cells (APCs), resulting in a potent T helper cell type 1 response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 DNA vaccine
An antigen-specific DNA cancer vaccine consisting of the coding sequences of a signal peptide (pNGVL4a-Sig), a detox form of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antigen E7, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Upon administration, this vaccine may generate potent cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses against E7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PNP-expressing ovine atadenovirus FP253
An ovine atadenovirus encoding E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) with prodrug activating activity. Under the control of a prostate-directed promoter, PNP-expressing atadenovirus vaccine FP253 expresses PNP in prostate tissue only after intraprostatic administration; this enzyme catalyzes systemically administered fludarabine prodrug into the active agent, 2-fluoroadenine. Localized prodrug activation provides prostate-targeted chemotherapy, potentially reducing systemic side effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pnu-Imune 23
(Other name for: pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine)
Pol I inhibitor CX5461
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CX-5461 selectively binds to and inhibits Pol I, prevents Pol I-mediated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, induces apoptosis, and inhibits tumor cell growth. Pol I, the multiprotein complex that synthesizes rRNA, is upregulated in cancer cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and survival. Hyperactivated rRNA transcription is associated with uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polaprezinc
An orally bioavailable chelate composed of zinc and L-carnosine, with potential gastroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon administration, polaprezinc increases the expression of various anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), SOD-2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), peroxidredoxin-1 (PRDX1; PRXI) and PRXD5 (PRXV) in the gastric mucosa, which protect cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, this agent inhibits the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) and reduces the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). Polaprezinc also increases the expression of various growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), and various heat shock proteins (HSPs), including HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, HSP47, HSP27, and HSP10. This protects against damages to, and accelerates healing of the gastric mucosa. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polatuzumab vedotin
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B) conjugated, via a protease-cleavable peptide linker, to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, polatuzumab vedotin selectively binds to CD79B, a protein which is abundantly expressed on the surface of B-cells. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. CD79B, a component of the B-cell receptor (BCR), plays a key role in B-cell receptor signaling and is expressed on the surface of almost all types of malignant B-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polihexanide solution
A solution containing the polymer polihexanide, with potential antimicrobial, disinfectant and wound healing activities. Upon application to a wound, polihexanide strongly binds to the wound surface and exerts an antiseptic effect through the binding of the positively charged guanidine groups of polihexanide with the negatively charged phospholipids of the bacterial cell membrane. This compromises the stability of the bacterial cell membrane, which results in the leakage of cytoplasmic components and leads to bacterial cell death. In addition, polihexanide accelerates wound healing by promoting epithelial cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polocaine
(Other name for: mepivacaine hydrochloride)
Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor GSK-461364
A small molecule Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor GSK461364 selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor MK1496
An orally bioavailable Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor MK1496 selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor NMS-1286937
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor NMS-1286937 selectively inhibits PLK1, inducing selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell-cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 stages without apoptosis in normal cells. PLK1 inhibition may result in the inhibition of proliferation in PLK1-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase crucial in the regulation of mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polo-like kinase 4 inhibitor CFI-400945 fumarate
An orally available fumarate salt form of CFI-400945, a polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, polo-like kinase 4 inhibitor CFI-400945 selectively inhibits PLK4, which results in the disruption of mitosis and the induction of apoptosis. PLK4 inhibition also prevents cell division and inhibits proliferation of PLK4-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK4, a member of the polo family of serine/threonine kinases overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a crucial role in the regulation of centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poly AU
A synthetic polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid double-stranded RNA. Poly AU may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing the production of interferon, may increase the number and tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poly IC
A synthetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA. Poly IC may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing interferon-gamma production, may increase the number and tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poly ICLC
A synthetic complex of carboxymethylcellulose, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and poly-L-lysine double-stranded RNA. Poly ICLC may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing interferon-gamma production, may increase the tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyacrylamide hydrogel
A transparent, biocompatible, non-resorbable, homogenous hydrogel containing 97.5% apyrogenic water and 2.5% of the cross-linked, synthetic polyacrylamide. Upon injection into the urethral submucosal tissue, the polyacrylamide hydrogel serves as a bulk forming agent and may possibly increase the strength of the urethral sphincter and thereby prevent or decrease stress-induced urinary incontinence. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poly-alendronate dextran-guanidine conjugate
A polybisphosphonate dextran-guanidine conjugate with potential anti-resorptive and antineoplastic activities. Alendronic acid and aminoguanidine were conjugated sequentially to oxidized dextran resulting in an average of 8 alendronate and 50 guanidine groups coupled to the dextran backbone. Upon administration, the poly-alendronate dextran-guanidine conjugate inhibits the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) which leads to a reduction in protein prenylation and to the loss of downstream metabolites essential for osteoclast function. This eventually leads to the induction of apoptosis in osteoclasts. Also, by preventing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this agent decreases bone turnover and stabilizes the bone matrix. The guanidine moiety increases the nitrogen content and possibly the activity of the bisphosphonate and its ability to inhibit FDPS. In addition, the guanidine moiety facilitates cell internalization and may contribute to this agent’s cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyamine analogue PG11047
A second generation polyamine analogue, synthesized through the restriction of molecular conformations of parent polyamine compounds, with potential antineoplastic activity. Polyamine analogue PG11047 may displace endogenous polyamines from DNA binding sites, thereby interfering with cell cycle processes dependent upon polyamine binding and function, and resulting in cell-cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, depletion of polyamines, and interference with gene and ligand-receptor activities involved with cell growth. This agent may exhibit decreased toxicity and enhanced cytotoxicity profiles compared to first-generation polyamine compounds. In tumor cells, there is an increase dependence on polyamines as well as a dysregulated polyamine metabolic pathway resulting in abnormal or sustained tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyamine analogue SBP-101
An analogue of naturally occurring polyamine (PA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, SBP-101 displaces endogenous PAs from PA-binding sites on the cell surface, which prevents internalization of PA. This inhibits PA-dependent cell cycle processes and results in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. PA uptake is upregulated in various tumor types and increased levels of PA leads to enhanced tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyamine transport inhibitor AMXT-1501 dicaprate
The dicaprate salt form of AMXT-1501, an orally bioavailable polyamine transport inhibitor, with immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, AMXT-1501 targets, binds to and blocks polyamine transport from the bloodstream into the tumor microenvironment (TME), thereby preventing cancer cell uptake. This decreases polyamine concentrations inside the TME and tumor cell, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In addition, AMXT-1501 may abrogate polyamine-mediated immune suppression in the TME. Polyamines, naturally found in normal, heathy cells, are required for normal cell growth and division. In cancer cells, polyamines play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor-induced suppression of the patient's immune system.
polycarbophil/carbomer/glycerin/palm oil glyceride/mineral oil-containing vaginal moisturizer
A commercial combination preparation that contains an adhesive polycarbophil polymer, which is used for vaginal lubrication. Polycarbophil is an insoluble compound that absorbs water and, after topical administration, adheres to vaginal epithelial cells. As a result, it helps both moisturize vaginal tissue and relieve the discomfort that is associated with vaginal dryness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethylene glycol 1000 cetyl ether cream
A cream containing a non-ionic surfactant belonging to the polyethylene glycol (PEG) family. Polyethylene glycol 1000 cetyl ether is used as an ointment base, but can also be used as an emulsifier and solubilizer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethylene glycol 3350-containing enema NER1008
An enema containing the osmotic agent polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, also called macrogol 3350, with laxative activity. Upon rectal administration of the PEG3350-containing enema NER1008, PEG creates an osmotic gradient, which promotes the retention of water in the bowel. This increases the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal (GI) motility, decreased stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethylene glycol hydrogel
A 2- or 3-dimensional hydrophilic, cross-linked polymer of polyethylene glycol (PEG). These hydrogels can be used as scaffolds for tissue engineering or as drug delivery carriers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethylene glycol recombinant endostatin
A formulation containing recombinant endostatin attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, induces microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, which may result in a reduction of tumor cell growth. Modification with PEG extends the circulation half-life of endostatin, improves stability and increases solubility in organic solvents. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethyleneglycol-7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin
A polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin with potential antineoplastic activity. After hydrolysis in vivo, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan, is released from polyethyleneglycol-7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (PEG-SN38); 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, resulting in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication, and the induction of apoptosis. This agent is designed to deliver the active metabolite to tumor cells without the need for conversion as is the case with irinotecan. Compared to unPEGylated 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, PEGylation improves solubility and allows for parental delivery, and may result in a longer half-life and higher exposure for tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyethyleneglycol-7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin DFP-13318
A long-acting formulation composed of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), a camptothecin derivative and active metabolite of irinotecan conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG), via a proprietary, cleavable linker, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the proprietary linkage system allows for very slow release of SN38 from the formulation. Upon release, SN38 selectively stabilizes covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes, and results in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication, and the induction of apoptosis. This agent is designed to deliver the active metabolite to tumor cells without the need for conversion as is the case with irinotecan. Compared to other PEG-SN38-based formulations, the linker system in DFP-13318 increases its half-life and the exposure time for tumor cells, while decreasing both blood plasma concentrations and exposure to off-target organs; this results in increased efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polygam S/D
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
poly-gamma glutamic acid
A water-soluble and biodegradable polymer naturally synthesized by various strains of Bacillus and composed of D- and L-glutamic acid polymerized via gamma-amide linkages, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, poly-gamma glutamic acid may augment the immune response by increasing the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducing the activation of macrophage and natural killer (NK) cells. In addition to its tumor control properties, IFN-gamma is a major mediator of innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections. TNF-alpha is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation, which is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death and exhibits anti-tumoral effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyglutamate camptothecin
A therapeutic formulation consisting of camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Camptotheca acuminata, conjugated with polyglutamate. During the S phase of the cell cycle, camptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Conjugation with polyglutamate renders this agent more water soluble and less toxic than the parent molecule. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/inactivated rabies virus vaccine YS-ON-001
A cancer vaccine composed of inactivated rabies vaccine (RV-V) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC; poly I-C), an immunostimulant and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the poly IC/inactivated RV-V YS-ON-001, the RV-V stimulates the immune system in various ways, such as promoting the activation and proliferation of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells and natural killer cells (NKs), promoting macrophage M1 polarization, downregulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), and inducing the production of anti-tumor cytokines. This re-activates immune responses in the suppressed tumor microenvironment (TME), leading to an induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the tumor cells, which cause tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction of tumor cell proliferation. Poly IC, a synthetic double-stranded RNA with one strand composed of a inosinic acid polymer and the other strand a cytidylic acid polymer, binds to TLR3 and stimulates the release of cytotoxic cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNg). This may boost the immune response against the tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polymeric camptothecin prodrug XMT-1001
A polymeric prodrug of camptothecin (CPT) with potential antineoplastic activity. Polymeric camptothecin prodrug XMT-1001 consists of CPT conjugated to the 60-70 kDa, inert, bio-degradable, hydrophilic copolymer poly[1-hydroxymethylene hydroxymethyl formal] (PHF). Through a dual-phase, non-enzymatic release mechanism, CPT is first released in plasma from XMT-1001 as the lipophilic prodrugs CPT-SI (a succinimidoglycinate derivative) and CPT-SA (a succinamidoyl glycinate derivative), which are then hydrolyzed within tissues to release the lactone form of CPT. CPT inhibits the catalytic activity of DNA topoisomerase I, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent may exhibit a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than other agents in the same class. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Polymox
(Other name for: amoxicillin)
PolyMVA
(Other name for: alpha-lipoic acid/vitamin/mineral supplement PolyMVA)
polymyxin B
A mixture of the polypeptides polymyxins B1 and B2, both obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains, with antimicrobial activity. Polymyxin B exerts its antimicrobial effect through its cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Specifically, this antibiotic binds to the negatively charged site in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the bacterial cell membrane via electrostatic affinity with the positively charged amino groups in the cyclic peptide portion. Subsequently, the fatty acid portion of polymyxin B dissolves in the hydrophobic region of the bacterial cell membrane. This results in an alteration in cell membrane structure, disruption of cell wall integrity and an increase in permeability for water and molecules. This will eventually lead to bacterial cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polymyxin-B immobilized fiber PMX-20R
A cartridge containing a polystyrene-based composite woven fiber that is covalently attached to the anti-microbial cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic polymyxin-B (PMX) and can potentially be used for hemoperfusion purposes. Upon extracorporeal treatment, a patient's blood flows through the fibers in the polymyxin-B immobilized fiber PMX-20R cartridge and the circulating endotoxins from the blood are selectively adsorbed by PMX, which has positively charged amino groups that bind to the negatively charged site in the lipid A portion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer of the bacterial cell membrane. This removes endotoxins from the blood and, upon administration of the blood back into the patient, helps treat or reduce the incidence of endotoxemia and sepsis.
Polyphenon E Ointment
(Other name for: kunecatechins ointment)
polypodium leucotomos extract
A nutritional supplement composed of an aqueous extract derived from the leaves of the tropical fern belonging to the Polypodiaceae family, Polypodium leucotomos (PL; Phlebodium aureum), with potential photoprotective, skin protective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. This extract contains many phenolic compounds, such as ferulic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acid, which are mainly responsible for this extract's effects. Upon administration, Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE) exerts antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the generation and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby preventing ultraviolet (UV)-induced as well as ROS-induced DNA damage. In addition, the chemicals in this extract protect antioxidant enzymes and modulate expression of cancer and inflammation-related genes, including the induction of the expression of tumor suppressor genes and the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes, thereby inhibiting the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis and inflammation, respectively. PLE also stimulates tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polysaccharide-K
A protein-bound polysaccharide derived from the mushroom Trametes versicolor (Turkey Tail) with immunoadjuvant and potential antitumor activities. Although its mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that polysaccharide-K induces peripheral blood monocyte secretion of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, induces T cell proliferation, and prevents cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. This agent has also been reported to stimulate macrophages to produce reactive nitrogen intermediates and superoxide anions and to promote apoptosis in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polysiloxane/gadolinium chelates-based nanoparticles
A nanoparticle formulation composed of a polysiloxane-based inorganic matrix bound to cyclic chelates composed of the chelating agent DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1-glutaric anhydride-4,7,10-triacetic acid) covalently bound to the paramagnetic contrast enhancer gadolinium (Gd), a high-Z material, with potential use in enhancing diagnostic images upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and potential radiosensitizing activity. Upon intravenous administration of polysiloxane matrix-gadolinium chelates-based nanoparticles, the nanoparticles extravasate to tumor sites due to the unique, hyperpermeable environment of the tumor vasculature. In addition, the small nanoparticles allow for deep penetration into the tumor, where they subsequently accumulate. Upon placement in a magnetic field, this agent produces a large magnetic moment and creates a large local magnetic field, which can enhance the relaxation rate of nearby protons. This change in proton relaxation dynamics increases the MRI signal intensity of tissues in which this agent has accumulated; therefore, contrast and visualization of those tissues are enhanced compared to unenhanced MRI. The ultra-small nanoparticles, less than 5 nm in diameter, allow for rapid renal clearance and reduced toxicity. Due to their magnetic properties, these nanoparticles make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poly-TLR agonist polyantigenic vaccine CADI-05
A poly-Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist polyantigenic vaccine containing heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (Mycobacterium w or Mw) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, poly-TLR agonist polyantigenic vaccine activates a number of TLRs, which may result in macrophage and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) stimulation; secretion of interferon alpha; production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, enhanced T and B-cell stimulatory responses; T cell proliferation, and a Th1 immune response. TLRs are transmembrane receptors that recognize structurally conserved microbial molecules such as bacterial cell-surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoproteins, lipopeptides, lipoarabinomannan and flagellin, among others; immune responses stimulated by TLR activation may result in antineoplastic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyunsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid containing more than one double bond (C=C). The essential fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that contain 2 or more cis double bonds. Dietary intake of some PUFAs may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum lipds, and inflammation. Some PUFAs, such as omega-3 PUFAs, may have antineoplastic or chemopreventive activities. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyvalent antigen-KLH conjugate vaccine
A multivalent cancer vaccine comprised of the five tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) globo H, GM2 ganglioside, Tn-MUC1, TF, and sTn conjugated with the immunoadjuvant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, polyvalent antigen-KLH conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing these TAAs, resulting in tumor cell death and tumor growth inhibition. Globo H (globo H hexasaccharide 1); GM2 ganglioside; Tn-MUC1 (human tumor-associated epithelial mucin 1 carrying the tumor-specific glycan Tn); TF (Thompson-Friedreich); and sTn (sialyl-Tn) are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. KLH is a hapten carrier and serves as an immunostimulant to improve immune recognition of antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyvalent melanoma vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of whole irradiated heterologous melanoma cells which express multiple melanoma-related antigens. Polyvalent melanoma vaccine may stimulate an antitumoral cytotoxic T-cell immune response in the host, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel
An oral bioadherent gel containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium hyaluronate with muco-protective activity. Upon oral application, this gel adheres to the mucosal surface of the mouth and throat, forming a thin layer that acts as a barrier to protect exposed and sensitized nerve endings from the painful stimuli associated with eating, drinking, and talking. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pomalidomide
An orally bioavailable derivative of thalidomide with potential immunomodulating, antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Although its exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, pomalidomide appears to inhibit TNF-alpha production, enhance the activity of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, pomalidomide may inhibit tumor angiogenesis, promote cell cycle arrest in susceptible tumor cell populations, and stimulate erythropoeisis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Pomalyst
(Other name for: pomalidomide)
pomegranate juice
A natural juice isolated from the fruit of the plant Punica granatum with antioxidant, potential antineoplastic, and chemopreventive activities. Pomegranate juice contains flavonoids which promote differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells by down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stimulating migration inhibitory factor (MIF), thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. The flavanoids in pomegranate juice also scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in some cell types, may prevent ROS-mediated cell injury and death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pomegranate liquid extract
A liquid extract preparation derived from pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds with antioxidant, and potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Pomegranate liquid extract contains flavonoids which may promote differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells by down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stimulating migration inhibitory factor (MIF), thus inhibiting angiogenesis.Pomegranate liquid extract flavanoids also scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in some cell types, may prevent ROS-mediated cell injury and death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pomegranate-extract pill
A pill formulation of polyphenol extracts derived from the fruit of the deciduous shrub Punica granatum with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. By binding and neutralizing free-radical compounds, the polyphenol extracts contained in pomegranate-extract pill may prevent their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
POMx
(Other name for: pomegranate-extract pill)
ponatinib hydrochloride
An orally bioavailable multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Ponatinib hydrochloride inhibits unmutated and all mutated forms of Bcr-Abl, including T315I, the highly drug therapy-resistant missense mutation of Bcr-Abl. This agent also inhibits other tyrosine kinases including those associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs); in addition, it inhibits the tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 and FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3). RTK inhibition by ponatinib hydrochloride may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and may induce cell death. Bcr-Abl is a fusion tyrosine kinase encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ponesimod
An orally available sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1, S1P1) agonist that acts as a functional antagonist, with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon oral administration, ponesimod selectively binds to S1PR1 on lymphocytes and causes transient receptor activation followed by S1PR1 internalization and degradation. This results in the sequestration of lymphocytes in lymph nodes. By preventing egress of lymphocytes, ponesimod reduces both the number of circulating peripheral lymphocytes and the infiltration of lymphocytes into target tissues. This prevents a lymphocyte-mediated immune response. S1PR1, a G-protein coupled receptor, plays a key role in lymphocyte migration from lymphoid tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
porcupine inhibitor CGX1321
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic, protective and regenerative activities. Upon oral administration, PORCN inhibitor CGX1321 specifically targets and binds to PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby inhibiting the post-translational palmitoylation and secretion of Wnt ligands, thus preventing the activation of Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibiting cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. In addition, by inhibiting the secretion of Wnt ligands and preventing Wnt-mediated signaling, CGX1321 may also limit fibrosis and promote regeneration of certain tissues upon cell injury. PORCN catalyzes the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. It also plays a key role in tissue regeneration.
porcupine inhibitor ETC-1922159
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ETC-1922159 binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational palmitoylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. Porcupine catalyzes the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
porcupine inhibitor WNT974
An orally available inhibitor of porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, WNT974 binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational acylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. Porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT), is required for the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion and activity. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
porfimer sodium
The sodium salt of a mixture of oligomers formed by ether and ester linkages of up to eight porphyrin units with photodynamic activity. Absorbed selectively by tumor cells, porfimer produces oxygen radicals after activation by 630 nm wavelength laser light, resulting in tumor cell cytotoxicity. In addition, tumor cell death may occur due to ischemic necrosis secondary to vascular occlusion that appears to be partly mediated by the release of thromboxane A2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
porfiromycin
An N-methyl derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces ardus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced porfiromycin generates oxygen radicals and alkylates DNA, producing interstrand cross-links and single-strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Porfiromycin is preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Portia
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel)
Portrazza
(Other name for: necitumumab)
posaconazole
A broad-spectrum, second generation, triazole compound with antifungal activity. Posaconazole strongly inhibits 14-alpha demethylase, a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme. Inhibition of 14-alpha-demethylase prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis changes the fungal cell membrane composition and integrity, alters membrane permeability and eventually leads to fungal cell lysis. Compared to other azole antifungals, posaconazole is a significantly more potent inhibitor of sterol 14-alpha demethylase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Posidur
(Other name for: extended release bupivacaine hydrochloride resorbable matrix formulation)
povidone-iodine solution
An iodophor solution containing a water-soluble complex of iodine and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with broad microbicidal activity. Free iodine, slowly liberated from the povoiodine-iodine (PVPI) complex in solution, kills eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells through iodination of lipids and oxidation of cytosplasmic and membrane compounds. This agent exhbits a broad range of microbicidal activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Slow release of iodine from the PVPI complex in solution minimizes iodine toxicity towards mammalian cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
poziotinib
An orally bioavailable, quinazoline-based, mall-molecular and irreversible pan-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Poziotinib inhibits EGFR (HER1 or ErbB1), HER2, HER4 and EGFR mutants, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. EGFRs, cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases, are often upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and play key roles in cellular proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PP14 derivative-treated HLA-matched donor mononuclear cell-enriched leukocytes
A preparation of allogeneic HLA-matched leukocytes treated with a derivative of placental protein 14 (PP14) with potential immunomodulating activity. PP14 derivative-treated HLA-matched donor mononuclear cell-enriched leukocytes contain at least fifty-five percent early-apoptotic T cells; after infusion and when processed by recipient dendritic cells, early-apoptotic T cells may help induce a decrease in the donor effector T-cell responses against the recipient of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant, thereby minimizing allogeneic HSC transplant-related graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PP14, a 162 amino acid glycosylated protein secreted by the late secretory phase endometrium, binds to T cells in a carbohydrate fashion and has been shown to induce T-cell apoptosis; maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and pregnancy-related remissions of autoimmune disease may involve PP14-induced T cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902
An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of phosphorylated-p68 RNA helicase (P-p68), with potential anti-proliferative and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902 may both inhibit the activity of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and facilitate the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). This may prevent G2/M cell cycle progression and lead to growth inhibition in tumor cells. P-p68 is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors but absent in normal tissues, and plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which regulates cell cycle progression and mediates both growth arrest and cellular senescence. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PPE-expressing replication-defective HSV-1 vector NP2
A replication-defective (ICP4-deleted) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) viral vector expressing the human preproenkephalin A (PPE) gene with potential antinociceptive activity. Upon intradermal administration, PPE-expressing replication-defective HSV-1 vector NP2 is transported by retrograde axonal transport to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and becomes dormant. In the DRG, the vector transduces sensory neurons with high efficiency, delivering the engineered PPE gene; transduced neurons then express the protein proenkephalin A, the precursor for Met- and Leu-enkephalin. After proteolytic cleavage from proenkephalin A in the DRG neuronal cytosol, transgene-mediated Met- and Leu-enkephalin bind to mu and gamma- opioid receptors, which may result in the inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PPI-2458
A synthetic derivative of fumagillin with antineoplastic and cytotoxic properties. PPI-2458 irreversibly inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase type 2 (MetAP2), thereby preventing abnormal cell growth and angiogenesis. PPI-2458 is reported to have a better toxicity profile compared to other agents of its class. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PR1 leukemia peptide vaccine
A cancer vaccine containing PR1, a 9 amino-acid human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted peptide derived from proteinase 3, with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Vaccination with PR1 leukemia peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing proteinase 3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Often overexpressed in leukemic cells, proteinase 3 is a serine proteinase that activates progelatinase A and is involved in angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
PR-104
A non-toxic, small-molecule, hypoxia-activated, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide nitrogen mustard pre-prodrug with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, PR-104 is converted by systemic phosphatases to the alcohol intermediate PR-104A, which is reduced to form the active DNA-crosslinking mustard species hydroxylamine PR-104H intracellularly under hypoxic conditions. PR-104H specifically crosslinks hypoxic tumor cell DNA, resulting in the inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis in susceptible hypoxic tumor cell populations while sparing normoxic tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
pracinostat
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Pracinostat inhibits HDACs, which may result in the accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division; and, finally, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may possess improved metabolic, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties compared to other HDAC inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)







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  1. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are changes to proteins or peptides that are catalyzed by enzymes after completion of ribosomal translation and it generally have a positive impact on peptide activity. Post-translational Modification

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