jueves, 31 de mayo de 2018

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute | d/D/2

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute



National Cancer Institute



289 results found for: D
Divine 9 with Carragel
(Other name for: carrageenan-containing gel)
DJ-927
A semi-synthetic, orally bioavailable taxane derivative with potential antineoplastic properties. Oral taxane derivative DJ-927 binds to tubulin, promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization and preventing microtubule depolymerization, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. As it represents poor substrate for P-glycoprotein-related drug resistance mechanisms, this agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant tumors. As the first oral taxane derivative, oral taxane derivative DJ-927 is more potent than paclitaxel and docetaxel. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DKK1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DKN-01
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. DKK1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody DKN-01 binds to and inhibits DKK1, which restores Wnt pathway signaling. Reactivation of the Wnt signaling pathway may result in the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts within the bone matrix and the reversal of tumor-induced osteolytic disease. Elevated levels of circulating DKK1, a potent Wnt signaling pathway antagonist, is associated with a number of neoplastic diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DLK1/ EPHA2/HBB/NRP1/RGS5/TEM1 peptide-pulsed alpha-type-1 polarized dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of mature polarized dendritic cells (alphaDC1) pulsed with six human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-presented tumor blood vessel antigen (TBVA)-derived peptides, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with a “type-1 polarizing cytokine cocktail”, including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), interferon-alpha (IFN-a), IFN-gamma and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C) to produce mature alpha type-1 polarized DCs (alphaDC1) that are capable of producing high levels of interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70). The alphaDC1 are subsequently pulsed with TBVA-derived peptides, including delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) 310-318, EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2) 883-891, beta-globin (HBB) 31-39, neuropilin-1 (NRP1) 433-441, regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5) 5-13 and tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) 691-700. Upon administration, these DCs are able to induce a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the TBVAs expressed on tumor-associated stromal cells, which results in stromal cell lysis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Disrupting the surrounding tumor vasculature inhibits tumor cell growth and survival. alphaDC1 are able to induce a potent tumor antigen-specific CTL response due to their high co-stimulatory activity and the secretion of anti-cancer cytokines, such as IL-12p70. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface-associated protein Cripto and conjugated to the maytansinoid DM4 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015 binds to the tumor associated antigen (TAA) Cripto; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of Cripto-expressing tumor cells. Constitutively expressed during embryogenesis, Cripto belongs to the EGF-CFC family of growth factor-like molecules and plays a key role in signaling pathways of certain transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members; as a TAA, Cripto is overexpressed in carcinomas such as those of the breast, ovary, stomach, lung, and pancreas while its expression is absent in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DM-CHOC-PEN
A cholesterol carbonate derivative of 4-demethylpenclomedine (DM-PEN) with potential antineoplastic alkylating activity. Upon intravenous administration of 4-demethylcholesteryloxycarbonylpenclomedine, the carbonium moiety binds to and alkylates DNA at the N7 guanine position, thereby causing DNA crosslinks. This prevents DNA replication, inhibits cellular proliferation and triggers apoptosis. In addition, due to its lipophilic cholesteryl moiety this agent is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and therefore can be given intravenously compared to other alkylating agents that need to be given intra-cranially. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
D-methionine formulation MRX-1024
A proprietary oral formulation of D-methionine with antioxidant and antimucositis activities. D-methionine formulation MRX-1024 may selectively protect the oral mucosa from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy without compromising antitumor activity. D-methionine may be converted into the L- isomer in vivo, particlualry in instances of L-methionine deprivation; both isomers have antioxidant activity which may be due, in part, to their sulfur moieties and chelating properties. L-methionine, an essential amino acid, also may help to maintain the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione in cells undergoing oxidative stress and may provide a source of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258
A liposomal formulation of the 24-mer oligonucleotide PNT100, with potential antineoplastic activity. PNT2258 targets and complements to untranscribed DNA sequence upstream of BCL2 promoters, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription of the BCL2 gene. This may promote and restore the apoptotic pathway in BCL2-overexpressing tumor cells. BCL2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA minor groove binding agent PM060184
A marine-derived, synthetically produced compound with potential antineoplastic activity. DNA minor groove-binding agent PM060184 covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA minor groove binding agent SG2000
A sequence-selective pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer with potential antineoplastic activity. Following intravenous administration, DNA minor groove binding agent SG2000 preferentially and covalently binds to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences, with the imine/carbinolamine moieties of SG2000 binding to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links and inhibits both DNA replication and gene transcription, which leads to the inhibition of cell growth. With a preference for binding to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences, SG2000 adducts do not appear to be susceptible to p53-mediated DNA excision repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA plasmid encoding interleukin-12 INO-9012
A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) with potential immunoactivating activity. Upon intramuscular delivery by electroporation of DNA plasmid encoding interleukin-12 INO-9012, IL-12 is translated in cells and activates the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NK cells), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma and promoting cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells. This may result in both immune-mediated tumor cell death and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of a DNA plasmid encoding epitopes of the human preferential antigen of melanoma (PRAME) and the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration of this vaccine into lymph nodes, peptides expressed by DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM may activate the immune system, resulting in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor associated antigens upregulated in a number of cancer cell types. As part of the MKC1106-PP regimen exploiting the 'prime-boost strategy', this plasmid is responsible for priming the immune response and is used in conjunction with a peptide vaccine consisting of PRAME and PSMA that boosts the immune system against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA plasmid-encoding interleukin-12/HPV DNA plasmids therapeutic vaccine MEDI0457
A DNA-based combination immunotherapeutic, MEDI0457, composed of VGX-3100, a preparation of DNA plasmids encoding the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16 and 18, combined with INO-9012, a DNA plasmid encoding the immune activator and pro-inflammatory cytokine human interleukin-12 (IL-12) with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular delivery by electroporation of VGX-3100, the HPV E6 and E7 proteins are translated in cells and elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cancer cells expressing the E6 and E7 antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. HPV type 16 and HPV type 18 are associated with the development of certain types of cancer. Upon intramuscular delivery by electroporation of MEDI0457, IL-12 is expressed and activates the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NK cells), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and promoting CTL responses against tumor cells. This boosts the immune response and results in increased CTL-mediated tumor cell death as compared with the administration of VGX-3100 alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA vaccine VB10.16
A therapeutic DNA vaccine composed of three parts, one encodes the E6/E7 fusion protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16), the second is a dimerization entity and the third part encodes a protein that specifically binds to antigen presenting cells (APCs), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration, the DNA vaccine VB10.16 expresses HPV16 E6/7 and a protein that targets receptors on APCs. Upon binding to APCs and subsequent internalization, the APCs mature and the HPV16 E6/7 antigenic protein is presented by the APCs. This attracts and stimulates B-lymphocytes, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes and elicits a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cancer cells expressing HPV16-associated E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which result in tumor cell lysis. HPV16 E6/7, a viral antigen, plays a key role in the development of certain types of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor VX-984
An ATP-competitive inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), with potential sensitizing and enhancing activities for both chemo- and radiotherapies. Upon administration, DNA-PK inhibitor VX-984 binds to and inhibits the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK, thereby interfering with the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process and preventing repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) caused by ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic treatment. This increases chemo- and radiotherapy cytotoxicity and leads to enhanced tumor cell death. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy; DNA-PK plays a key role in the NHEJ pathway and DSB repair.
DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01
A proprietary preparation of small interfering DNA (siDNA) molecules with potential chemo/radiosensitizing activity. By mimicking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01 inhibits the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process, one of the main DNA repair mechanisms, via binding to and activating DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a core component of the NHEJ complex. DNA-PK activation causes hyper-phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX on DNA and results in a different phosphorylated pattern of H2AX upon ionizing radiation treatment. This ultimately interferes with the repair of DNA DSBs during chemo- or radiotherapy, thereby increasing tumor cell death. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNAi® drug PNT2258
(Other name for: DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258)
DNA-PK inhibitor MSC2490484A
An orally available inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), with potential antineoplastic and chemo/radiosensitizing activities. Upon oral administration, the DNA-PK inhibitor MSC2490484A binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK. This inhibits the ability of tumor cells to repair damaged DNA, which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation of cancer cells expressing DNA-PK. DNA-PK, a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the PI3K-related kinase subfamily of protein kinases, is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNA-PK/TOR kinase inhibitor CC-115
A dual inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-115 binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK and both raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2), which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation of cancer cells expressing DNA-PK and TOR. DNA-PK, a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the PI3K-related kinase subfamily of protein kinases, is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks via the DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumor cells modified with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Administration of DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against renal cell carcinoma tumor cells. DNP conjugation may enhance the immunogenicity of weakly immunogenic antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DNR-expressing nasopharyngeal carcinoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous, dominant-negative receptor (DNR)-expressing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), with potential antineoplastic activity. The DNR-expressing NPC-specific CTLs specifically target Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), latent membrane proteins (LMP) and BamHIA rightward frame 1 (BARF1), and are transduced with a retroviral vector expressing DNR, a dominant-negative form of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) receptor, which blocks TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Upon administration, the CTLs recognize and target NPC cells, which may result in both CTL-mediated cell lysis and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Tumor-expressed TGF-beta inhibits T-lymphocyte activation and expansion; resistance to TGF-beta allows for optimal CTL activity. EBV infection plays a key role in NPC tumorigenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dobutamine
A synthetic catecholamine with sympathomimetic activity. Dobutamine is a direct-acting inotropic agent and an adrenergic agonist that stimulates primarily the beta-1 adrenoceptor, with lesser effect on beta-2 or alpha receptors. Via beta-1 adrenoceptor of the heart, this agent induces positive inotropic effect with minimal changes in chronotropic activities or systemic vascular resistance. Dobutamine also causes vasodilation by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors in blood vessels, augmented by reflex vasoconstriction resulting in increased cardiac output. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel
A semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane derived from a compound found in the European yew tree Taxus baccata. Docetaxel displays potent and broad antineoplastic properties; it binds to and stabilizes tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule disassembly which results in cell- cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and displays immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory properties by inducing various mediators of the inflammatory response. Docetaxel has been studied for use as a radiation-sensitizing agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel emulsion ANX-514
An injectable emulsion formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semisynthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Docetaxel emulsion ANX-514 is formulated without polysorbate 80 or other detergents in order to reduce the incidence and severity of hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, the exclusion of polysorbate 80 in this formulation precludes foaming during the preparation process, thus facilitating preparation and administration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel formulation CKD-810
An injectable formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semisynthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel lipid microspheres
A lipid microsphere (LM)-based formulation containing the poorly water soluble taxane docetaxel, a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and leads to cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Compared to docetaxel alone, the LM formulation may enhance stability, improve efficacy and may reduce toxicity; this formulation does not contain toxic detergents needed to solubilize docetaxel which further improves its side effect profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel-loaded nanopharmaceutical CRLX301
A nanoparticle-based formulation containing the poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog docetaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of the docetaxel-loaded nanopharmaceutical CRLX301, the nanoparticles are able to accumulate at the tumor site due to the unique characteristics of the tumor’s vasculature, while avoiding normal, healthy tissue. In turn, CRLX301 is taken up by the tumor cell via macropinocytosis. Subsequently, docetaxel is slowly released into the cytoplasm where it binds to and stabilizes the beta-subunit of tubulin, thereby stabilizing microtubules and inhibiting microtubule disassembly. This prevents mitosis and results in cell death. Compared to the administration of docetaxel alone, this formulation is able to increase docetaxel’s efficacy while avoiding systemic exposure, which minimizes its toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docetaxel-PNP
A polymeric nanoparticle (PNP) formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, preventing cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Compared to docetaxel alone, the PNP formulation may enhance stability and improve delivery. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doconexent
A polyunsaturated very long-chain fatty acid with a 22-carbon backbone and 6 double bonds, originating from the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th positions from the methyl end. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
docosahexaenoic acid
A polyunsaturated very long-chain fatty acid with a 22-carbon backbone and 6 double bonds. Four separate isomers can be called by this name. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dolasetron mesylate
An indole derivative with antiemetic activity. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, dolasetron mesylate competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5HT3 receptors, resulting in suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dolastatin 10
A pentapeptide originally isolated from the marine mollusk Dolabella auricularia with potential antineoplastic activity. Binding to tubulin, dolastatin 10 inhibits microtubule assembly, resulting in the formation of tubulin aggregates and inhibition of mitosis. This agent also induces tumor cell apoptosis through a mechanism involving bcl-2, an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in some cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dolobid
(Other name for: diflunisal)
Dolophine
(Other name for: methadone hydrochloride)
dolutegravir
An orally bioavailable integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Upon oral administration, dolutegravir binds to the active site of integrase, an HIV enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of viral genetic material into human chromosomes. This prevents integrase from binding to retroviral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and blocks the strand transfer step, which is essential for the HIV replication cycle. This prevents HIV-1 replication. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Domestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Domolene-HC
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
donepezil hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of a piperidine derivative with neurocognitive-enhancing activity. Donepezil reversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase, thereby blocking the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and, consequently, increasing its activity. This agent may improve neurocognitive function in Alzheimer's disease, reduce sedation associated with opioid treatment of cancer pain, and improve neurocognitive function in patients who have received radiation therapy for primary brain tumors or brain metastases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
donor lymphocytes
A population of lymphocytes from the blood of a donor and administered to a patient who has already received a stem cell transplant from the same donor (allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). The donor lymphocytes may be able to boost the patient's immune system and kill remaining cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
donor regulatory T lymphocytes
Donor-derived regulatory T-cells (Tregs), with potential immunomodulating activity. Tregs are a subset of CD4+ T cells that express high levels of CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) and the transcription factor Foxp3. The donor CD4+CD25+ Tregs modulate immune responses and may induce tolerance to allogeneic organ transplants, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs), thereby preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
donor-derived cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cell
A population of donor-derived cytokine-induced, memory-like, cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells (CIML NKs), with potential antitumor activity. Allogeneic NK cells are pre-activated ex vivo with various cytokines, which induces the differentiation of the NK cells into CIML NK cells. The pretreated NK cells exhibit enhanced activation and interferon-gamma (IFN-g) responses, and may exert enhanced cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Upon administration, the CIML NKs may induce an anti-tumor immune response and kill tumor cells.
donor-derived WT1/PRAME/NY-ESO-1/survivin-specific T-lymphocytes
Allogeneic T-lymphocytes specifically reactive to the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) human Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT1), Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME), the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, and survivin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Donor derived T-cells are mixed, ex vivo, with protein fragments derived from the TAAs WT1, PRAME, NY-ESO-1, and survivin. Upon intravenous administration, the donor-derived WT1/PRAME/NY-ESO-1/Survivin-specific T-lymphocytes recognize and kill cancer cells expressing these TAAs. WT1, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and survivin, are expressed on certain tumor cell types and play key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dopamine–somatostatin chimeric molecule BIM-23A760
A chimeric molecule directed against dopamine and somatostatin receptors with potential antineoplastic activity. Combining two pharmacological moieties, a somatostatin analogue and a dopamine agonist, dopamine–somatostatin chimeric molecule BIM-23A760 binds with high affinity to dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), and to a lesser extent to somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5). This agent appears to exert its effect mainly by binding to D2R to activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, thus inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cellular proliferation in non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) and neuroendocrine tumors. By binding to SSTR2, this agent may inhibit the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dopar
(Other name for: levodopa)
Doptelet
(Other name for: avatrombopag maleate)
dornase alfa
A recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNAse) with selective DNA cleaving activity. Upon intrapleural administration, dornase alfa catalyzes the degradation of extracellular DNA in airway secretions, which can reduce their viscosity. Thus, dornase alfa may both promote the clearing of airway mucus and improve pulmonary function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dornase alfa inhalation solution
A highly purified solution of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNAse) with selective DNA cleaving activity. Administrated through inhalation of the nebulized solution, dornase alpha catalyzes DNA degradation in viscous airway secretions, which may render airway secretions less viscous, thus promoting the clearing of airway mucous plugging and improvement in pulmonary function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dostinex
(Other name for: cabergoline)
DOT1L inhibitor EPZ-5676
A small molecule inhibitor of histone methyltransferase with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, EPZ-5676 specifically blocks the activity of the histone lysine-methyltransferase DOT1L, thereby inhibiting the methylation of nucleosomal histone H3 on lysine 79 (H3K79) that is bound to the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion protein which targets genes and blocks the expression of leukemogenic genes. This eventually leads to an induction of apoptosis in the leukemic cells bearing the MLL gene translocations. DOT1L, a non-SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase, specifically methylates H3K79 and plays a key role in normal cell differentiation and in the development of leukemia with MLL gene rearrangement on chromosome 11 and promotes the expression of leukemia-causing genes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DOTAP:chol-Fus1 liposome complex
A formulation composed of DOTAP:cholesterol liposomal nanoparticles complexed with a plasmid expression cassette encoding human FUS1 protein, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, DOTAP:chol-Fus1 liposome complex accumulates mainly in the lungs and particularly in cancer cells. Upon transfer of the Fus1 gene into tumor cells, the expression of Fus1 may induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppress tumor cell proliferation. Fus1, a potent tumor-suppressor protein, is present in normal, healthy cells but often absent in certain cancer cells. DOTAP:cholesterol liposome is composed of cationic lipid dioleoyl-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol at a molar ratio of 1:1. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DOTAREM
(Other name for: gadoterate meglumine)
dovitinib lactate
The orally bioavailable lactate salt of a benzimidazole-quinolinone compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Dovitinib strongly binds to fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and inhibits its phosphorylation, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell death. In addition, this agent may inhibit other members of the RTK superfamily, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1; platelet-derived growth factor receptor type 3; FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3; stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT); and colony-stimulating factor receptor 1; this may result in an additional reduction in cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The activation of FGFR3 is associated with cell proliferation and survival in certain cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dovonex
(Other name for: calcipotriene)
doxazosin mesylate
The mesylate salt form of doxazosin, a quinazoline compound with smooth muscle relaxing activity. Doxazosin mesylate selectively antagonizes alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in smooth muscle of the bladder neck and prostate, thereby relaxing the smooth muscle and decreasing the obstruction and urethral resistance seen with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This may improve BPH symptoms. This agent also blocks alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vascular smooth muscle, which leads to vasodilatation and a subsequent decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxepin hydrochloride
A dibenzoxepin derivative and tricyclic antidepressant with antipruritic and sedative activities. Doxepin blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into presynaptic terminals thereby prolonging the availability of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters within the synaptic cleft and enhancing their action leading to sedative effects. Doxepin also has antagonistic effects on histamine (H1 and H2), 5-HT2, alpha-1 adrenergic, and muscarinic receptors. The antipruritic effect of this agent is the result mediated through inhibition of histamine receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxercalciferol
A synthetic analog of vitamin D with potential antineoplastic activity. In the liver, doxercalciferol is converted to its biologically active vitamin D metabolites, which control the intestinal absorption of dietary calcium, the tubular reabsorption of calcium by the kidney and, in conjunction with parathyroid hormone (PTH), the mobilization of calcium from the skeleton. Through interaction with specific receptor proteins in target tissues, these vitamin D metabolites act directly on osteoblasts to stimulate skeletal growth, and on the parathyroid glands to suppress PTH synthesis and secretion. This agent has also been shown to inhibit the growth of retinoblastomas, and may exhibit some antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxifluridine
A fluoropyrimidine derivative and oral prodrug of the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with antitumor activity. Doxifluridine, designed to circumvent the rapid degradation of 5-FU by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in the gut wall, is converted into 5-FU in the presence of pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase. 5-FU interferes with DNA synthesis and subsequent cell division by reducing normal thymidine production and interferes with RNA transcription by competing with uridine triphosphate for incorporation into the RNA strand. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Doxil
(Other name for: doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome)
doxorubicin hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic with antineoplastic activity. Doxorubicin, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius, is the hydroxylated congener of daunorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids; the formation of oxygen free radicals also contributes to the toxicity of the anthracycline antibiotics, namely the cardiac and cutaneous vascular effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome
A liposome-encapsulated form of the hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. Liposomal delivery of doxorubicin HCL improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of therapeutic drug effects; a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin also modulates toxicity, specifically the cardiac effects commonly seen with anthracycline antitumor drugs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxorubicin-eluting beads
A drug-device combination product consisting of small polymeric beads impregnated with the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. The beads consist of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres modified with sulfonic acid groups and loaded with doxorubicin. During transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), doxorubicin-eluting beads embolize to the tumor vasculature and release cytotoxic doxorubicin, which may result in both ischemic necrosis of tumor tissue due to mechanical blockage of the tumor vasculature and doxorubicin-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxorubicin-HPMA conjugate
A copolymer conjugate of the antineoplastic anthracycline doxorubicin and the water-soluble polymer N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA). Doxorubicin, an intercalator and a topoisomerase II inhibitor, prevents DNA replication and ultimately inhibits protein synthesis. This agent also generates oxygen free radicals, resulting in cytotoxic lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. HPMA conjugation enhances the permeability and retention of this agent within the tumor vasculature. Poorly cleared by the lymphatic system, this formulation undergoes increased cleavage by tumor cell lysosomal proteinases, resulting in increased, sustained intracellular concentrations of free doxorubicin. Compared to other doxorubicin-containing formulations, this formulation may exhibit an improved toxicity profile due to the lower concentrations of free doxorubicin to which non-malignant tissues are exposed. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxorubicin-loaded EGFR-targeting nanocells
A nanocell formulation targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using bispecific antibodies (bsAb) against EGFR and containing the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of doxorubicin-loaded EGFR-targeting nanocells, the nanocells are stable in the bloodstream and the anti-EGFR bsAb moiety targets and binds to EGFR-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding, the nanocell allows for specific delivery of doxorubicin to tumor cells overexpressing EGFR. Upon endocytosis by the tumor cells, the nanocell is broken down and releases doxorubicin, which intercalates into DNA and interferes with topoisomerase II activity, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA synthesis. Compared to doxorubicin alone or liposomal doxorubicin, targeted delivery of doxorubicin improves efficacy while lowering the toxicity profile. EGFR, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in many cancer cell types. The nanocell is a bacterially derived nanosphere; the bacterial components are unlikely to induce an immune response in the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxorubicin-magnetic targeted carrier complex
A formulation of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin in which doxorubicin is bound to microscopic beads of activated carbon and iron as a magnetic-targeted carrier (MTC). Doxorubicin, an intercalator and a topoisomerase II inhibitor, prevents DNA replication and ultimately inhibits protein synthesis. This agent also generates oxygen free radicals, resulting in cytotoxic lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. Guided by the placement of a magnet on the body surface overlying a tumor site, the doxorubicin-MTC complex delivers doxorubicin directly to the tumor site, thereby targeting and prolonging the duration of doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity to the tumor bed while minimizing systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dox-SL
(Other name for: doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome)
doxycycline calcium
The calcium salt form of doxycycline exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Doxycycline blocks binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. In addition, this agent has exhibited inhibition of collagenase activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
doxycycline hyclate injection
The hyclate salt form of doxycycline, a synthetic, broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Doxycycline hyclate binds reversibly to the 30S ribosomal subunit, possibly to the 50S ribosomal subunit as well, thereby blocking the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. This leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, this agent has exhibited inhibition of collagenase activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DPT/BCG/measles/Serratia/pneumococcus vaccine
A proprietary lipid emulsion containing five vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT), Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), measles, Serratia marcescens and pneumococcal, with potential immunostimulating activity. Subcutaneous administration of the DPT/BCG/measles/Serratia/pneumococcus vaccine activates the immune system and may both abrogate tumor-induced immune tolerance and induce an antitumor immune response, which may eradicate the tumor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DPT/typhoid/Staphylococcus aureus/paratyphoid A/paratyphoid B vaccine
A proprietary lipid emulsion containing five vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT), typhoid, Staphylococcus aureus, paratyphoid A and paratyphoid B, with potential immunostimulating activity. Subcutaneous administration of the DPT/typhoid/Staphylococcus aureus/paratyphoid A/paratyphoid B vaccine activates the immune system and may both abrogate tumor-induced immune tolerance and induce an antitumor immune response, which may eradicate the tumor. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dronabinol
An isomer of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that is the main and most active isomer found in the cannabis sativa L. plant, with potential anti-emetic, analgesic and appetite stimulating activities. Upon administration, dronabinol, also called delta-9-THC, targets and binds to cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) located in the central nervous system (CNS). Dronabinol acts directly on the appetite and vomiting control centers in the brain to stimulate appetite and prevent emesis. In addition, this agent induces analgesia. Urine levels may be used as a marker to determine the exposure to certain preparations containing parts of the cannabis plant, such as marijuana. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
droperidol
A butyrophenone with anti-emetic, sedative and anti-anxiety properties. Although the exact mechanism through which droperidol exerts its effects is unknown, droperidol may block dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), which may lead to its anti-emetic effect. This agent may also bind to postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), which increases the inhibitory effect of GABA and leads to sedative and anti-anxiety activities. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Droxia
(Other name for: hydroxyurea)
DT(388)IL3 fusion protein SL-401
A recombinant protein consisting of human interleukin 3 (IL3) fused to the first 388 amino acids of diphtheria toxin [DT(388)] (DT388IL3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the IL3 moiety of the DT(388)IL3 fusion protein SL-401 binds to IL3 receptors on cells expressing the receptor. Subsequently, the DT(388) toxin moiety, which contains both translocation and catalytic domains, is transported across the cell membrane via endocytosis. Within the cytosol, the catalytic domain of the toxin both catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of, and inactivates, translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2), which results in the inhibition of translation during protein synthesis. IL3 may be overexpressed by a variety of cancers, including blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DTA-H19 plasmid
A plasmid DNA encoding the A chain of the diphtheria toxin (DT-A) driven by the transcriptional regulatory sequences of human H19, with potential antineoplastic activity. Because the expression of DT-A is under the control of H19 promotor elements, DT-A is selectively expressed in tumor cells capable of turning on H-19. DT-A catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2), resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and apoptosis. In addition, DT-A protein released from lysed cells cannot enter and kill neighboring cells because of the absence of the DT-B chain, further enhancing the selective cytotoxicity of this agent. Human H19 is a paternally-imprinted, oncofetal gene encoding an RNA product; it acts as a "riboregulator" in gene expression and is found at substantial levels in different human tumor cell types while its expression in normal adult tissue is limited. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dual PI3 kinase/mTOR inhibitor GDC-0980
An orally available agent targeting phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor GDC-0980 inhibits both PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition of cancer cells overexpressing PI3K/mTOR. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated in a PI3K-independent fashion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dual variable domain immunoglobulin ABT-165
A dual-specific, tetravalent immunoglobulin (Ig)G-like molecule targeting two as of yet not publicly known targets, with potential antineoplastic activity. The target-binding variable domains of two monoclonal antibodies, which are not publicly known, are combined, via linkers, to create the tetravalent, dual-targeting single agent ABT-165. Upon administration of dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig) ABT-165, the target-binding variable domains specifically recognize and simultaneously bind to their two antigens expressed on tumor cells. This may both prevent antigen-mediated signaling and lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. The antigen targets are overexpressed on certain tumor cell types. The DVD-Ig may have enhanced physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties as compared to their antibody counterparts. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dual-affinity B7-H3/CD3-targeted protein MGD009
An Fc-bearing humanized bispecific dual-affinity re-targeting (DART) protein composed of Fv regions derived from monoclonal antibodies against the immunoregulatory protein B7-homologue 3 (B7-H3, CD276) and the T-cell surface antigen CD3, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the MGD009 DART protein, the anti-B7-H3 component targets and binds to the cell surface antigen B7-H3; at the same time, the anti-CD3 component binds to human CD3. This cross-links the T cells to B7-H3-expressing tumor cells, activates and redirects endogenous T cells to kill B7-H3-expressing tumor cells, and inhibits proliferation of B7-H3-expressing tumor cells. B7-H3, a type I transmembrane protein and a member of the B7 co-stimulatory protein superfamily, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types and on various immune cells but is minimally expressed by normal human tissues. B7-H3 is a negative regulator of T-cell activation and its overexpression plays a key role in immuno-evasion, tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Duavee
(Other name for: conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene)
duborimycin
An anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic with therapeutic effects similar to those of doxorubicin. Duborimycin exhibits cytotoxic activity through topoisomerase-mediated interaction with DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dulanermin
A recombinant human soluble protein corresponding to amino acids 114-281 of the Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (RhApo2L/TRAIL) with potential antineoplastic activity. Dulanermin binds to and activates TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 (TRAIL-R1/R2), which may activate caspases and induce p53-independent apoptosis in TRAIL-R1/R2-expressing tumor cells. The pro-apoptotic cell surface receptors TRAIL-R1 and -R2, also known as DR4 (death receptor 4) and DR5 (death receptor 5), are members of the TNF receptor family and are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
duloxetine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of duloxetine, a fluoxetine derivative belonging to the class of selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) and exhibiting antidepressant activity. Duloxetine selectively prevents the reuptake of 5-HT and NE via transporter complexes on the pre-synaptic membrane, thereby increasing the level of these neurotransmitters within the synaptic cleft. As a result, this agent potentiates serotonergic and noradrenergic activities in the central nervous system, and alleviates depression and neuropathy sensations, such as pain and tingling. Furthermore, duloxetine does not show significant affinity for dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, opioid, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
durvalumab
A Fc optimized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; B7 homolog 1; B7H1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, durvalumab binds to PD-L1, thereby blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells. This may reverse T-cell inactivation and activate the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1, a member of the B7 protein superfamily, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types and on various tumor-infiltrating immune cells. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion. The Fc region of durvalumab is modified in such a way that it does not induce either antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dutasteride
A synthetic 4-azasteroid compound with antiandrogenic activity. Dutasteride competitively and specifically binds to isoenzymes 1 and 2 of 5-alpha-reductase, forming stable enzyme complexes and inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT); the reduction in DHT activity may mitigate or prevent enlargement of the prostate gland. The type 2 5-alpha-reductase isoenzyme is primarily active in the reproductive tissues while the type 1 isoenzyme is also active in skin and the liver. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
dUTPase inhibitor TAS-114
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon oral administration in combination with a prodrug of the pyrimidine antagonist 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), TAS-114 inhibits (DPD), the liver enzyme responsible for rapid catabolism of 5-FU into inactive metabolites. This prevents first-pass metabolism of 5-FU, allowing oral administration of the 5-FU prodrug and increasing the efficacy of 5-FU. In addition, as a dUTPase inhibitor, TAS-114 enhances the antitumor activity of 5-FU by preventing the hydrolysis and breakdown of 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine triphosphate (FdUTP) and deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP), which are active metabolites of 5-FU. This promotes DNA polymerase-dependent incorporation of these antimetabolites into DNA and leads to DNA damage and tumor cell death. Co-administration with TAS-114 allows lower dosing of 5-FU prodrugs, which decreases 5-FU-related toxicity, while maintaining therapeutic levels of 5-FU at the tumor site. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
duvelisib
An orally bioavailable, highly selective and potent small molecule inhibitor of the delta and gamma isoforms of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, duvelisib prevents the activation of the PI3K delta/gamma-mediated signaling pathways which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K delta/gamma-expressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the delta and gamma isoforms are overexpressed primarily in hematologic malignancies and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. By selectively targeting these PI3K isoforms, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally or not affected which would result in a more favorable side effect profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
DWJ1319
An orally available agent that may prevent the formation of gallstones. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dymelor
(Other name for: acetohexamide)
Dynacin
(Other name for: minocycline hydrochloride)
Dysport
(Other name for: botulinum toxin type A)

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  1. Deoxyribonuclease I (usually called DNase I), is an endonuclease coded by the human gene DNASE1. DNase I is a nuclease that cleaves DNA preferentially at phosphodiester linkages adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide, deoxyribonuclease i

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