jueves, 31 de mayo de 2018

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute | a/A/5

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute





1069 results found for: A
aprepitant
A small molecule, high-affinity substance P antagonist (SPA) with antiemetic activity. Crossing the blood brain barrier, aprepitant binds selectively to the human substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby inhibiting receptor binding of endogenous substance P and substance P-induced emesis. This agent has little or no affinity for serotonin type 3 (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apricoxib
An orally bioavailable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Apricoxib binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby inhibiting the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Apricoxib-mediated inhibition of COX-2 may induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. COX-related metabolic pathways may represent crucial regulators of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Apriso
(Other name for: mesalamine)
aprotinin bovine
A single chain polypeptide isolated from bovine lung with antifibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory activities. As a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin bovine competitively and reversibly inhibits the activity of a number of different esterases and proteases, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, plasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, and tissue and leukocytic proteinases, resulting in attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), fibrinolysis, and thrombin generation. This agent also inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine release and maintains glycoprotein homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aptosyn
(Other name for: exisulind)
Aquacel AG with Hydrofiber
(Other name for: ionic silver-impregnated sodium carboxymethyl cellulose antimicrobial dressing)
Aquacel Dressing
(Other name for: sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing)
Aquadiol
(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)
Aquaphor
(Other name for: petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment)
AR antagonist BMS-641988
A nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with anti-androgenic and potential antineoplastic activities. AR antagonist BMS-641988 binds to ARs in target tissues and prevents AR activation, which may result in the inhibition of AR-mediated transcriptional activity and tumor cell death in susceptible tumor cell populations. Global gene expression analysis has shown that exposure to this agent may result in a phenotype that is closer to a castration phenotype than is achievable with other antiandrogens such as bicalutamide. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aralast
(Other name for: alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor human)
Aranelle
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)
Aranesp
(Other name for: darbepoetin alfa)
Arava
(Other name for: leflunomide)
Archexin
(Other name for: Akt antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201)
arcitumomab
A murine IgG monoclonal Fab fragment antibody labeled with technetium-99m directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is overexpressed by many tumor cell types. For tumors that overexpress CEA, arcitumomab may be used as an adjunct diagnostic imaging tool to obtain prognostic information following resection and to monitor for recurrent disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arcoxia
(Other name for: etoricoxib)
Aredia
(Other name for: pamidronate disodium)
arginase inhibitor INCB001158
An orally available inhibitor of arginase, a manganese-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the amino acid arginine to form ornithine and urea, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, arginase inhibitor INCB001158 inhibits the breakdown of arginine by arginase, which is produced by myeloid cells, and restores arginine levels. This allows arginine to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which induces the proliferation and activation of T cells. Therefore, this agent may prevent the immunosuppressive effects of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and promote lymphocyte-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. Arginase is produced by neutrophils, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and plays a role in inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine butyrate
The butyric acid salt of the amino acid arginine. In EBV-related lymphomas, arginine butyrate induces EBV thymidine kinase transcription and may act synergistically with the antiviral agent ganciclovir to inhibit cell proliferation and decrease cell viability. In addition, the butyrate moiety inhibits histone deacetylase, which results in hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. Acetylated histones have a reduced affinity for chromatin; this reduced histone-chromatin affinity may allow chromosomal unfolding, potentially enhancing the expression of genes related to tumor cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine/omega-3 fatty acids/nucleotides oral supplement
An oral nutritional supplement, containing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, arginine, and nucleotides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Omega-3 fatty acids/arginine/nucleotides oral supplement may enhance activities of key components of the immune system, including lymphocytes, antigen presenting cells (APCs), and various cytokines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ArginMax
(Other name for: L-arginine/Korean ginseng/ Gingko biloba/damiana-based supplement)
Aricept
(Other name for: donepezil hydrochloride)
Arimidex
(Other name for: anastrozole)
Aristocort
(Other name for: triamcinolone)
Aristocort A
(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)
Arixtra
(Other name for: fondaparinux sodium)
armodafinil
The R-enantiomer of the racemic synthetic agent modafinil with central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and wakefulness-promoting activities. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, armodafinil appears to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine-reuptake pump, which leads to an increase in extracellular dopamine levels in some brain regions. This agent does not bind to or inhibit several receptors and enzymes that may be involved in sleep/wake regulation and is not a direct- or indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonist. Armodafinil has a longer half-life than modafinil. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arnebia Indigo Jade Pearl topical cream
A proprietary multiherbal topical cream based on Chinese herbal medicine with potential antineoplastic, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulatory activities. Arnebia Indigo Jade Pearl topical cream contains 12 ingredients including 9 herbs infused in sesame oil, with an additional three powdered ingredients and beeswax added to the infused oil to create the salve. The purported mechanism(s) of action is unclear due to the complexity of the herbal mixture. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aromasin
(Other name for: exemestane)
Aroplatin
(Other name for: liposomal NDDP)
Arranon
(Other name for: nelarabine)
arsenic trioxide
A small-molecule arsenic compound with antineoplastic activity. The mechanism of action of arsenic trioxide is not completely understood. This agent causes damage to or degradation of the promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML/RARa) fusion protein; induces apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells and in many other tumor cell types; promotes cell differentiation and suppresses cell proliferation in many different tumor cell types; and is pro-angiogenic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arsenic trioxide capsule formulation ORH 2014
An orally bioavailable capsule formulation of the inorganic toxic compound arsenic trioxide (As2O3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the mechanism of action (MoA) of As2O3 is not well understood, upon oral administration of ORH 2014, As2O3 appears to bind to DNA, prevent DNA synthesis, and cause DNA fragmentation, which leads to an induction of apoptosis in proliferating cells, including tumor cells. In addition, As2O3 causes damage to and induces degradation of the promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML/RARa) fusion protein, and inhibits the activity of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artemether sublingual spray
A sublingual spray containing artemether, a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, an endoperoxide extracted from the Chinese herb qinghaosu (Artemisia annua or annual wormwood), with antiparasitic and potential antineoplastic activity. Upon sublingual application of the spray, artemether exerts its antineoplastic activity through as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism(s) of action. This agent binds to heme molecules inside cells, thereby inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage which selectively kills cancer cells. In addition, artemether appears to target and modulate the expression of various proteins involved in cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Also, this agent depletes T regulatory cells, and modulates the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma. Altogether, this inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The sublingual spray allows faster absorption of a higher percentage of the artemether dose, when compared to the oral form, as it avoids first pass metabolism; this results in an increased efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artesunate
A water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpine lactone artemisinin with anti-malarial, anti-shistosomiasis, antiviral, and potential anti-neoplastic activities. Upon hydrolysis of artesunate’s active endoperoxide bridge moiety by liberated heme in parasite-infected red blood cells, reactive oxygen species and carbon-centered radicals form, which have been shown to damage and kill parasitic organisms. Additionally, in vitro studies demonstrate that this agent induces DNA breakage in a dose-dependent manner. Artesunate has also been shown to stimulate cell differentiation, arrest the cell cycle in the G1 and G2/M phases, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis through mitochondrial and caspase signaling pathways. Artemisinin is isolated form the plant Artemisia annua. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artichoke whole phytocomplex concentrate
A whole phytocomplex concentrate (W.P.C.) composed of a standardized extract of the Cynara scolymus (artichoke) leaf with potential antioxidant, protective and chemopreventive activities. Artichoke W.P.C. is high in flavonoids and polyphenols, such as caffeoylquinic acids, which are mainly responsible for the pharmacological effects of the extract. Artichoke W.P.C. also contains protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, numerous enzymes, volatile oils, phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artificial saliva spray
A spray formulation containing a saliva substitute, composed of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, dipotassium phosphate and monopotassium phosphate, that has potential anti-xerostomia activity. Upon direct oral application of the artificial saliva spray, a protective film of moisture is deposited over the mucous membranes of the mouth, which relieves dryness of the mucous membranes and increases salivary flow. In addition, artificial saliva may help prevent chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arzerra
(Other name for: ofatumumab)
arzoxifene hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of arzoxifene, a synthetic aromatic derivative with anti-estrogenic properties. Arzoxifene binds to estrogen receptors as a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist. In comparison to other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), arzoxifene exhibits greater bioavailability and higher anti-estrogenic potency in the breast than raloxifene; it exhibits reduced estrogenicity in the uterus compared with either tamoxifen or raloxifene. This agent may have beneficial effects on bone and the cardiovascular system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine
A split-virus, inactivated influenza A (H1N1) vaccine containing H1N1 immunizing antigen combined with the adjuvant AS03, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon intramuscular vaccination, AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine may elicit an immune response against the H1N1 virus and the production of anti-H1N1 antibodies. AS03 is a stabilized oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant containing DL-alpha-tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80 that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune antigen responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asacol
(Other name for: mesalamine)
asaley
An L-leucine derivative of melphalan with antineoplastic activity. Asaley alkylates and crosslinks DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asciminib
An orally bioavailable, allosteric Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome resistance, asciminib binds to the Abl portion of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein at a location that is distinct from the ATP-binding domain. This binding results in the inhibition of Bcr-Abl-mediated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) hematological malignancies. The Bcr-Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase is an abnormal enzyme produced by leukemia cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ascorbic acid
A natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, connective tissue, skin, and capillaries. Found in citrus and other fruits, and in vegetables, vitamin C cannot be produced or stored by humans and must be obtained in the diet. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ashwagandha root powder extract
A dietary supplement containing an extract powder derived from the root of the ashwagandha shrub with potential antineoplastic, antioxidant, immunostimulating and anti-angiogenic activities. Ashwagandha root powder extract contains numerous alkaloids, including withanine as the primary alkaloid, and steroidal lactone withanolides. The withanolides in this agent may suppress nuclear factor-kappaB activation and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated gene expression, potentiating apoptosis and inhibiting tumor cell invasion. Cultivated in India and North America, ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal or Indian ginseng) belongs to the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asian ginseng
The aromatic root of perennial herbs of Panax ginseng. Ginseng, used in traditional Chinese medicine and available as a nutritional supplement, is classified as an adaptogenic herb with multiple effects, many of them are regulatory in nature. It contains a complex mixture of saponins, ginsenosides and panaxosides. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, ginseng is reported to enhance the immune system and reduce fatigue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASK1 inhibitor GS-4997
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), with potential anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and anti-fibrotic activities. Upon oral administration, ASK1 inhibitor GS-4997 targets and binds to the catalytic kinase domain of ASK1 in an ATP-competitive manner, thereby preventing its phosphorylation and activation. This prevents the phosphorylation of downstream kinases, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). By preventing the activation of ASK1-dependent signal transduction pathways, GS-4997 prevents the production of inflammatory cytokines, down-regulates the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, suppresses excessive apoptosis and inhibits cellular proliferation. ASK1, also called mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), is activated in response to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium influx and infection. It plays a key role in the development of certain cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, as well as certain types of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASONEP
(Other name for: sonepcizumab)
Asorbicap
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
ASP4132
A molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ASP4132 affects oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of metabolically-active tumor cells, which reduces both energy production and tumor cell proliferation. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is hyperactivated in tumor cells and plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASP9853
An orally bioavailable small molecule, with potential antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asparaginase
An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Escherichia coli or the bacterium Erwinia carotovora with antileukemic activity. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia in leukemic cells, resulting in the depletion of asparagine, inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and apoptosis in susceptible leukemic cell populations. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells; some leukemic cells cannot synthesize this amino acid de novo due to the absent or deficient expression of the enzyme asparagine synthase. The E. carotovora-derived form of asparaginase is typically reserved for cases of asparaginase hypersensitivity. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (E. carotovora). Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting leukemic cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The Erwinia-derived product is often used for those patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to the E. Coli formulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aspergum
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)
astatine At 211 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8-B10
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the murine IgG1 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb) BC8 where the lysine side groups have been conjugated with decaborate (closo-decaborate; B10) and labeled with astatine (At) 211, with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Astatine At 211 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8-B10 binds to CD45 antigen, a receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the surface of both normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. After binding and internalization by CD45-expressing tumor cells, this agent may deliver a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation. Additionally, the radiolabel can be leveraged to assay the biodistribution and/or pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) for this agent. The use of B10 rather than other labeling methods increases the therapeutic efficacy while decreasing the toxicity of the radioconjugate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica gigas/Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz mixed herbal extract SH003
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based herbal extract composed of Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag) and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the active ingredients in Am/Ag/Tk mixed herbal extract SH003 work synergistically to exert a number of activities through various mechanisms of action (MOA); although, not all of the MOAs are fully elucidated. SH003 blocks the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptor VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2; KDR), thereby inhibiting VEGF/VEGFR2-mediated signaling and VEGF-induced tumor endothelial cell migration, invasion and tube formation. This inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In addition, SH003 inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and STAT3-mediated signaling, decreases the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expression of STAT3 target genes. This induces apoptosis in, and reduces proliferation and metastasis of, cancer cells in which STAT3 signaling is overactivated. STAT3 activation contributes to inflammation in the cancer environment and tumor cell proliferation.
Astragalus-based formulation Qing Shu Yi Qi Tang
An herbal remedy containing Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng, Atractylodes chinensis Koidz, Cimicifuga foetida, A. macrocephala Koidz, Alisma orientale Juzep, and Citrus reticulata Blanco, with potential immunomodulating, anti-oxidant and anticachexia activities. Upon oral consumption, the ingredients in this herbal supplement may modulate the activity of the immune system through a decrease in both the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and he production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (Il-1b), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are correlated with decreased appetite and weight loss; thus, this herbal remedy may improve immune function, appetite and weight gain, which could prevent cachexia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Astugenal
(Other name for: antineoplaston AS2-1)
astuprotimut-R
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant form of human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) combined with a proprietary adjuvant with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, astuprotimut-R may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A3 antigen, resulting in tumor cell death. MAGE-A3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) originally discovered in melanoma cells, is expressed by various tumor types. The proprietary immunostimulating adjuvant in this agent is composed of a specific combination of immunostimulating compounds selected to increase the anti-tumor immune response to MAGE-A3. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asulacrine isethionate
The isethionate salt of an amsacrine analogue with antineoplastic properties. Asulacrine inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase ll, thereby blocking DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asunaprevir
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), with potential activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Upon administration, asunaprevir binds to the active center of the HCV NS3 and prevents NS3 protease-mediated polyprotein maturation. This disrupts the processing of viral proteins required for HCV replication. NS3, a serine protease, is essential for the proteolytic cleavages within the HCV polyprotein and plays a key role during HCV viral RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASV
(Other name for: neoantigen-HSP70 peptide cancer vaccine)
Atacand
(Other name for: candesartan cilexetil)
atamestane
A synthetic steroidal substance with antineoplastic activity. Atamestane binds irreversibly to and inhibits the enzyme aromatase, thereby blocking the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the peripheral aromatization of androgenic precursors into estrogens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atengenal
(Other name for: antineoplaston A10)
atenolol
A synthetic isopropylamino-propanol derivative used as an antihypertensive, hypotensive and antiarrhythmic. Atenolol acts as a peripheral, cardioselective beta blocker specific for beta-1 adrenergic receptors, without intrinsic sympathomimetic effects. It reduces exercise heart rates and delays atrioventricular conduction, with overall decreasing oxygen requirements. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atezolizumab
A humanized, Fc optimized, monoclonal antibody directed against the protein ligand PD-L1 (programmed cell death-1 ligand 1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Atezolizumab binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T-cells, which may enhance the T-cell-mediated immune response to neoplasms and reverse T-cell inactivation. In addition, by binding to PD-L1, atezolizumab also prevents binding of this ligand to B7.1 expressed on activated T cells, which further enhances the T-cell-mediated immune response. PD-L1 is overexpressed on many human cancer cell types and on various tumor-infiltrating immune cells. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. The Fc region of atezolizumab is modified in such a way that it does not induce either antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATGAM
(Other name for: anti-thymocyte globulin)
atiprimod
An orally bioavailable small molecule belonging to the azaspirane class of cationic amphiphilic agents with anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antiangiogenic properties. Atiprimod inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), blocking the signalling pathways of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and downregulating the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Ativan
(Other name for: lorazepam)
ATM inhibitor M 3541
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), with potential chemo-/radio-sensitizing and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, M 3541 targets and binds to ATM, thereby inhibiting the kinase activity of ATM and ATM-mediated signaling. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, induces tumor cell apoptosis, and leads to cell death of ATM-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, M 3541 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATM, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types; it is activated in response to DNA damage and plays a key role in DNA-strand repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATM kinase inhibitor AZD0156
An orally bioavailable ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase inhibitor, with potential chemo-/radio-sensitizing and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, AZD0156 targets and binds to ATM, thereby inhibiting the kinase activity of ATM and ATM-mediated signaling. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, induces tumor cell apoptosis, and leads to cell death of ATM-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, AZD0156 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATM, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types; it is activated in response to DNA damage and plays a key role in DNA-strand repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATN-161
A small peptide antagonist of integrin alpha5beta1 with potential antineoplastic activity. ATN-161 selectively binds to and blocks the receptor for integrin alpha5beta1, thereby preventing integrin alpha5beta1 binding. This receptor blockade may result in inhibition of endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Integrin alpha5beta1 is expressed on endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atomoxetine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of atomoxetine, a phenoxy-3-propylamine derivative and selective non-stimulant, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-enhancing activity. Although its precise mechanism of action is unknown, atomoxetine appears to selectively inhibit the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter, resulting in inhibition of the presynaptic reabsorption of norepinephrine and prolongation of norepinephrine activity in the synaptic cleft; the effect on cognitive brain function may result in improved attention and decreased impulsivity and activity levels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atorvastatin calcium
The calcium salt of atorvastatin, a synthetic lipid-lowering agent. Atorvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent increases the number of LDL receptors on hepatic cell surfaces, enhancing the uptake and catabolism of LDL and reducing LDL production and the number of LDL particles, and lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. Like other statins, atorvastatin may also display direct antineoplastic activity, possibly by inhibiting farnesylation and geranylgeranylation of proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins, which may result in the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent may also sensitize tumor cells to cyctostatic drugs, possibly through the mTOR-dependent inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738
An orally available morpholino-pyrimidine-based inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related (ATR) kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 selectively inhibits ATR activity by blocking the downstream phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase CHK1. This prevents ATR-mediated signaling, and results in the inhibition of DNA damage checkpoint activation, disruption of DNA damage repair, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, AZD6738 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and survival; it is activated by DNA damage caused during DNA replication-associated stress. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR kinase inhibitor BAY1895344
An orally available ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-specific kinase inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ATR kinase inhibitor BAY1895344 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of ATR, which prevents ATR-mediated signaling. This inhibits DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair and induces apoptosis in ATR-overexpressing tumor cells. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell survival.
ATR kinase inhibitor VX-970
An inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) kinase, a DNA damage response kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. ATR kinase inhibitor VX-970 selectively inhibits ATR kinase activity and prevents ATR-mediated signaling in the ATR-checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) signaling pathway. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, and induces tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, VX-970 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and survival; it is activated by DNA damage caused during DNA replication-associated stress. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR-101
An orally bioavailable agent that is selective towards adrenal cortex cells with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, ATR-101 selectively kills adrenal and adrenal cancer cells, through an unknown mechanism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atragen
(Other name for: liposomal tretinoin)
atrasentan hydrochloride
The orally available hydrochloride salt of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. As a selective antagonist of the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor, atrasentan binds selectively to the ETA receptor, which may result in inhibition of endothelin-induced angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atromid-S
(Other name for: clofibrate)
atropine sulfate
The sulfate salt of atropine, a naturally-occurring alkaloid isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine functions as a sympathetic, competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, thereby abolishing the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. This agent may induce tachycardia, inhibit secretions, and relax smooth muscles. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus 5T4 vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant, attenuated, replication-defective simian adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1) encoding the human 5T4 fetal oncoprotein (ChAdOx1.5T4), with potential immuno-activating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the recombinant attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus 5T4 vaccine, the viral vector expresses 5T4 and stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing 5T4, which results in tumor cell lysis. 5T4, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types; its expression is correlated with increased invasiveness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
attenuated Listeria monocytogenes CRS-100
A live-attenuated strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes CRS-100 may accumulate in and infect liver cells where it may activate a potent innate immune response and an adaptive immune response involving the by recruitment and activation of T lymphocytes. This agent may potentiate the immune response to vaccines against various liver neoplasms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Augmentin
(Other name for: amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium)
auranofin
An orally available, lipophilic, organogold compound, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, with anti-inflammatory and potential antineoplastic activities. Auranofin interacts with selenocysteine residue within the redox-active domain of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thereby blocking the activity of TrxR. As a result, this agent induces mitochondrial oxidative stress leading to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, this agent strongly inhibits the JAK1/STAT3 signal transduction pathway, thereby suppressing expression of immune factors involved in inflammation. TrxR, overexpressed in many cancer cell types, inhibits apoptosis, promotes cell growth and survival and plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy; TrxR catalyzes the reduction of oxidized thioredoxin (Trx) and plays a central role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurimmune
(Other name for: colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor)
Aurixim
(Other name for: rituximab conjugate CON-4619)
Aurolate
(Other name for: gold sodium thiomalate)
Aurora A kinase inhibitor TAS-119
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase aurora A, with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, aurora A kinase inhibitor TAS-119 binds to and inhibits aurora A kinase, which may result in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, inhibition of cell division and the induction of apoptosis in cells overexpressing aurora A kinase. Aurora A kinase localizes to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules during mitosis; it plays an essential role in the regulation of spindle assembly. Aurora kinase A is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora A kinase/tyrosine kinase inhibitor ENMD-2076
An orally bioavailable synthetic small molecule with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Aurora A kinase/tyrosine kinase inhibitor ENMD-2076 selectively binds to and inhibits non-specified tyrosine kinases and Aurora kinases (AKs). The inhibition of AKs may result in the inhibition of cell division and proliferation and may induce apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress AKs; antiangiogenic activity is related to the inhibition of angiogenic tyrosine kinases. AKs are serine-threonine kinases that play an essential role in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis and are important regulators of cell division and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora B kinase inhibitor TAK-901
A small-molecule inhibitor of the serine-threonine kinase Aurora B with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora B kinase inhibitor TAK-901 binds to and inhibits the activity of Aurora B, which may result in a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress Aurora B. Aurora B is a positive regulator of mitosis that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere; the segregation of sister chromatids to each daughter cell; and the separation of daughter cells during cytokinesis. This serine/threonine kinase may be amplified and overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A
An ATP-competitive inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinases Aurora B and C with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A binds to and inhibits the activity of Aurora kinases B and C, which may result in inhibition of cellular division and a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress the Aurora kinases B and C. Aurora kinases play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis, and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900
A small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases A, B and C with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may result in inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 811283
A small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 811283 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases, resulting in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor MLN8054
An orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora A kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Auora kinase inhibitor MLN8054 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinase A, resulting in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregration, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Aurora A localizes in mitosis to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules and is thought to regulate spindle assembly. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases occurs in a wide variety of cancers, including colon and breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor PF-03814735
An orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive, reversible small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor PF-03814735 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A and B, which may result in the inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor SNS-314
A synthetic small molecule Aurora kinase (AK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor SNS-314 selectively binds to and inhibits AKs A and B, which may result in the inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress AKs. AKs are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor TTP607
A small-molecule pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor TTP607 selectively binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may result in the disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in Aurora kinase-overexpressing tumor cells. Aurora kinases A, B and C, are serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase/VEGFR2 inhibitor CYC116
An orally bioavailable small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase/VEGFR 2 inhibitor CYC116 inhibits Aurora kinases A and B and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), resulting in disruption of the cell cycle, rapid cell death, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Aurora kinases are serine/threonine protein kinases that are only expressed in actively dividing cells and are critical in division or mitosis. VEGFR2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that appears to account for most of the mitogenic and chemotactic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on adult endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous ACTR-CD16-CD28-expressing T lymphocytes ACTR707
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified, using proprietary Antibody-Coupled T-cell Receptor (ACTR) technology, to express a chimeric protein containing, at least, the extracellular Fc receptor domain of CD16, normally found on certain immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, coupled to the co-stimulatory signaling domain of CD28, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon reintroduction into the patient with co-administration of a cancer-specific antibody, the co-administered antibody targets and binds to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on the tumor cell. In turn, the autologous ACTR-CD16-CD28-expressing T lymphocytes ACTR707 bind to the antibody, become activated and induce the destruction of the tumor cells by a) releasing cytotoxins that directly kill cancer cells; b) releasing cytokines that trigger an immune response and recruit other immune-mediated killer cells to kill the tumor cells; c) targeting and killing adjacent tumor cells that are not bound to the antibody; d) inducing T-cell proliferation and thereby further enhancing the T-cell mediated tumor cell attack. Compared to other T-cell products, ACTR-based products do not target a specific TAA and can potentially be used in a variety of tumors because targeting is based on the specificity of the co-administered antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous Ad-CD154-transduced CLL B cells
An autologous tumor cell vaccine containing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells transduced with an adenoviral vector carrying chimeric CD154 (ad-CD154) with potential antineoplastic activity. Administration of autologous ad-CD154 transduced CLL B cells may result in increases in the numbers of leukemia-specific CD4+ T cells and high serum-levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. Due to ligation of CD154 to CD40 on CLL cells, this agent may induce CLL cells to express the proapoptotic molecule Bid and death receptors CD95 (Fas) and DR5, rendering CLL B cells first resistant and then sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, autologous ad-CD154 transduced CLL B cells may induce MHC class I-dependent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against autologous leukemia cells. CD154 is a type II membrane glycoprotein and ligand for CD40; both molecules are important in cognate co-stimulatory cell-cell interactions. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous AML/dendritic cell fusion vaccine
A therapeutic cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) fused with autologous acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The autologous AML/DC fusion vaccine is generated in vitro by mixing DCs and irradiated AML cells harvested from individual patients, in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), to produce hybrid DC-leukemia fusion cells. Upon re-administration, the autologous AML/DC fusion vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated antitumor immune response against a broad array of AML-associated antigens, which may lead to AML cell lysis.
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCARH125
A preparation of autologous CD4- and CD8-positive T lymphocytes that have been ex vivo transduced with a genetically-engineered lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the CD3-zeta (CD3z) T-cell signaling domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCARH125 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells.
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing memory T lymphocytes bb21217
A preparation of autologous memory T lymphocytes transduced, ex vivo, with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and a CD3-zeta T-cell activation domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration back into the patient, the autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing memory T lymphocytes bb21217 are directed to, and induce selective toxicity in, BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma survival. BCMA is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing stem memory T cells P-BCMA-101
A preparation consisting of autologous T cells that are enriched to be primarily stem memory T cells (Tscm) and are transfected by electroporation with a proprietary transposon-based DNA plasmid vector (PiggyBac) containing an undisclosed selection gene and encoding both an unidentified human-derived safety switch and a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based on a proprietary non-immunoglobulin scaffold molecule Centyrin (CARTyrin), which specifically recognizes human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing Tscm P-BCMA-101 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. Use of CARTyrin may elicit less immunotoxicity than agents based on antibody-derived single chain variable fragments (scFv), and this agent may exhibit increased persistence and decreased exhaustion for the administered T cells. If significant side effects occur, the safety switch mechanism can induce the rapid attenuation or elimination of P-BCMA-101. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) that binds to both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL; TNFSF13) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF; TNFSF13B), plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD123 CAR TCR/4-1BB-expressing T lymphocytes
Autologous, genetically engineered T lymphocytes that have been electroporated with a messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain (IL3RA; CD123) single chain variable fragment (scFv) coupled to the co-stimulatory signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the mRNA-electroporated autologous anti-CD123 CAR TCR/4-1BB expressing T lymphocytes attach to cancer cells expressing CD123. This induces selective toxicity in and causes lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances T cell activation and signaling after recognition of CD123. CD123 is normally expressed on committed blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow; its overexpression is associated with both increased leukemic cell proliferation and aggressiveness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes BinD19
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a T-cell receptor (TCR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137) and to the cytoplasmic portion of the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (CD3zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes BinD19 target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, the release of cytotoxic molecules and tumor cell lysis. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival.
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that targets the human tumor associated antigen (TAA) CD19, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes bind to and induce selective toxicity against CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-T cells TBI-1501
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced, via a proprietary technology involving a recombinant human fibronectin fragment to enhance transduction efficiency, with a retroviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to co-stimulatory molecules, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, anti-CD19-CAR-expressing autologous T lymphocytes TBI-1501 target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, the release of cytotoxic molecules and the induction of tumor cell lysis. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increase proliferation and activation of T cells.
autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells C-CAR011
A proprietary preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and containing, as of yet undisclosed, costimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells C-CAR011 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells SJCAR19
A proprietary preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and containing, as of yet undisclosed, costimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells SJCAR19 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ central memory T lymphocytes JCAR014
A defined preparation of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory (CM) autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domains of CD28, 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+CM T lymphocytes JCAR014 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCAR017
A preparation of a defined ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCAR017 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of genetically modified CD8+ central memory (Tcm) and CD4+ autologous T-lymphocytes (1:1) transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) FMC63, fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T-cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T-cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-Claudin18.2-transduced T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes ex vivo transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Claudin18.2 (CLDN18.2; A2 isoform of claudin-18), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CLDN18.2CAR-transduced T lymphocytes specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in CLDN18.2-expressing tumor cells. CLDN18.2, a tight junction protein, is expressed on a variety of tumor cells, but its expression in healthy tissues is strictly confined to short-lived differentiated epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa.
autologous anti-gp100:154-162 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) epitope-determined T cell receptor (TCR) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are isolated from a melanoma patient and pulsed with a viral vector encoding the TCR specific for amino acid residues 154-162 of gp100 (KTWGQYWQV). After expansion ex vivo, the transduced autologous PBLs, expressing this specific TCR, are reintroduced into the patient and bind to melanoma cells expressing the gp100 protein, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of gp100-expressing melanoma cells. gp100 is a melanocyte lineage-specific antigen overexpressed in melanomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-HPV-16 E6 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that is specifically directed against the viral oncoprotein human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-HPV-16 E6 TCR gene-engineered PBLs bind to HPV-16 E6-expressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of HPV-16 E6-positive cancer cells. HPV-16 E6, a cell surface glycoprotein, is overexpressed by a variety of HPV-associated cancers and is absent from healthy human tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-MART-1 F5 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a melanoma antigen MART-1 epitope-determined T cell receptor (TCR) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are isolated from a melanoma patient and pulsed with a viral vector that encodes the TCR specific for an epitope of MART-1 (F5 TCR). After expansion ex vivo, the transduced autologous PBLs, expressing this specific TCR, are reintroduced into the patient, and bind to melanoma cells expressing the MART-1 antigen, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of MART-1-expressing melanoma cells. MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1), also known as Melan-A, is a melanocyte lineage-specific transmembrane protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-MG7-CAR T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous, engineered T lymphocytes that express both a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the human gastric carcinoma-associated antigen MG7, and the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, the autologous anti-MG7-CAR T lymphocytes target and attach to cancer cells expressing MG7. This induces selective toxicity in and causes lysis of MG7-expressing tumor cells. MG7, a glycosylated protein sequence from the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), plays a key role in the development of certain tumor cell types. 4-1BB enhances T-cell activation and signaling after recognition of MG7. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 TCR-transduced c259 T lymphocytes
Human autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and L antigen family member 1 (LAGE-1; Cancer/Testis Antigen 2; CTA2; CT2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Following leukapheresis, isolation of lymphocytes, expansion ex vivo, transduction, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-NY-ESO1/LAGE-1 TCR-transduced c259 T-lymphocytes specifically target and bind to NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1, members of the cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family, are overexpressed on the surface of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-PSMA gene-modified T-cells
Autologous prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) gene-modified T lymphocytes with potential antineoplastic activity. Human autologous T-lymphocytes are isolated and transduced ex vivo with a retrovirus encoding a chimeric immune receptor (CIR) consisting of an antibody fragment against PSMA fused with signaling domains of the T cell. Upon reintroduction into the patient, autologous anti-PSMA gene-modified T-cells bind to PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) tumor cell killing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous BCMA-4-1BBz-targeted CAR T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been ex vivo transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the CD3-zeta (CD3z) T-cell signaling domain (4-1BBz), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous BCMA-4-1BBz-targeted CAR-T cells specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells; it is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells, and plays a key role in plasma cell survival.
autologous beta-A(T87Q)-globin gene-transduced CD34-positive cells
A preparation of autologous, CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transduced ex vivo with the BB305 recombinant replication-defective, self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding for an engineered form of human beta-globin (hemoglobin-beta, HBB) gene, beta-A-T87Q (b-A-T87Q) where the threonine at position 87 has been substituted with glutamine, with potential to restore beta-globin expression and function. Autologous CD34-positive stem cells are isolated from the patient's own bone marrow and the cells are transduced with the lentiviral vector. Upon re-infusion of the b-A-T87Q-globin gene transduced CD34-positive cells back into the patient, these cells express b-A-T87Q-globin, thereby allowing the body to make normal hemoglobin and thus normal, healthy red blood cells. Beta-globin, the beta-chain of the most common form of hemoglobin, is encoded by the HBB gene; mutations in this gene prevent normal beta-globin production and are associated with beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. The b-A-T87Q form of beta-globin has increased antisickling activity compared to the wild type protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous bi-epitope BCMA-targeted CAR T cells LCAR-B38M
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced, ex vivo, with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing two bispecific anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) variable fragments of llama heavy-chain murine antibodies fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The antigen-binding region of the CAR is a non-scFv structure targeting two distinct regions of BCMA. Upon intravenous administration back into the patient, the autologous bi-epitope BCMA-targeted CAR T cells are directed to cells expressing BCMA, bind to two different epitopes on BCMA and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells.
autologous bone marrow-derived CD34/CXCR4-positive stem cells AMR-001
A cell-based product containing autologous bone marrow derived CD34 positive and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) positive stem cells with potential antiapoptotic and proangiogenic activities. Upon intracoronary infusion after a myocardial infarction (MI), autologous bone marrow-derived CD34/CXCR4-positive stem cells may preserve cardiac muscle cells and prevent apoptosis; thus improving myocardial perfusion. CD34/CXCR4-positive stem cells are naturally mobilized upon cell injury through signaling by hypoxia inducing factor (HIF), which is secreted in response to hypoxia. In turn, HIF induces the synthesis of stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which mobilize CD34/CXCR4 positive stem cells; CXCR4 is the receptor for stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD123-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR123
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor (4SCAR) consisting of an anti-CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain or IL3RA) single chain variable fragment (scFv) that is coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains CD28, CD137, CD27 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and is fused with the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous CD123-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR123 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD123-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and induces activation of caspase 9, which results in the apoptosis of the administered T cells and enhances safety of this agent. CD123 is normally expressed on committed blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow; its overexpression is associated with increased leukemic cell proliferation and aggressiveness. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD123CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T-cells transduced with a replication-incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a hinge-optimized, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), containing a CD28 co-stimulatory signaling domain fused to CD3 zeta, the single-chain variable fragment of CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain or IL3RA) antigen, and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD123CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123 is normally expressed on committed blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow; its overexpression is associated with increased leukemic cell proliferation and aggressiveness. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, EGFRt both facilitates detection of the administered T-cells in vivo and can promote elimination of those cells following a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity response. The costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T-cells and antitumor activity. Hinge optimization prevents recognition of the CAR by Fc receptors (FcRs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD133-positive BTSC mRNA-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with CD133-positive autologous brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) –derived mRNA with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, autologous CD133-positive BTSC mRNA-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the CD133-positive BTSCs from which the autologous tumor mRNA is derived. CD133, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and neural stem cell marker, has been found on a specific subset of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells; its presence has been correlated with resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD171-specific CAR-CD28 zeta-4-1-BB-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of genetically modified autologous human T-lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM/CD171) antigen, and the co-stimulatory signaling domains CD28, 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3 zeta, and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon re-infusion into the patient, the autologous L1-CAM-specific CAR-CD28 zeta-4-1-BB-EGFRt-expressing T-lymphocytes are directed to and induce selective toxicity in L1-CAM-expressing tumor cells. L1-CAM, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule and member of the L1 protein family, plays a key role in the development of the nervous system; it is overexpressed in various tumor cell types and is associated with increased chemoresistance, tumor progression, migration and metastasis. Devoid of both ligand-binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, EGFRt facilitates both the detection of the administered T-cells in vivo and the elimination of the modified T-cells following a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The co-stimulatory signaling domains enhance both proliferation of T-cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD19/CD22 chimeric antigen receptor T cells
A preparation of autologous human T lymphocytes engineered to express a chimeric T-cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) consisting of one or more binding domains targeting the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) CD19 and CD22 and fused to one or more co-stimulatory TCR-signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous CD19/CD22 CAR T cells bind to CD19 and CD22 on the surface of, and induce selective toxicity against, tumor cells expressing CD19 and CD22. CD19 and CD22, both transmembrane phosphoglycoproteins expressed on the surface of cells in the B-lineage, are overexpressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD19-28z chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T lymphocytes
Genetically modified autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a replication-incompetent retroviral vector expressing a chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment), fused to the extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains of the T cell co-stimulatory receptor CD28 and the cytoplasmic signaling domain of the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) (CAR19-28z), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD19-28z CAR-expressing T-lymphocytes are directed to CD19-expressing tumor cells, which induces selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. The CD28 co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. The inclusion of the CD28 signaling domain may increase proliferation of T-cells and antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD19CAR-CD28-CD137/CD27/CD3zeta-iCasp9-expressing T lymphocytes
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a fourth generation-lentiviral vector to express the 4SCAR19 gene composed of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to the co-stimulatory molecules CD28, 4-1BB (CD137), and CD27, and to the cytoplasmic portion of the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (CD3zeta), and containing the apoptosis-inducible suicide gene human caspase 9 (iCASP9 or iC9), that is linked to a drug binding domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCASP9 construct consists of the entire coding sequence for the human FK506-drug binding protein (FKBP12) with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) that is linked to the gene encoding iC9, which is a modified form of the CASP9 gene where the sequences encoding the endogenous caspase activation and recruitment domains have been deleted. Upon transfusion, anti-CD19-CAR-CD28/CD137/CD27/CD3zeta-iCasp9-expressing autologous T lymphocytes target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, and causes tumor cell lysis. If the administered T cells cause unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903, which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug-binding domain, can be administered; this induces caspase 9 expression, and results in apoptosis of the administered 4SCAR19 T cells. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival.
autologous CD19CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing Tcm-enriched T cells
A preparation of genetically modified autologous central memory (Tcm) enriched T-cells transduced with a replication incompetent lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), containing a CD28 signaling domain fused to both CD3 zeta, which targets the CD19 antigen, and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD19CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing Tcm-enriched T cells are directed to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing a selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered T-cells and can promote elimination of those cells upon a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity response. The costimulatory signaling domain enhances proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD20-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR20
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor (4SCAR) consisting of an anti-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) that is coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains CD28, CD137, CD27 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and is fused with the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD20-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR20 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD20-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and induces activation of caspase 9, which results in the apoptosis of the administered T cells and enhances safety of this agent. CD20 is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD22-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR22
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor (4SCAR) consisting of an anti-CD22 single chain variable fragment (scFv) that is coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains CD28, CD137, CD27 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and is fused with the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD22-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR22 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD22-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and induces activation of caspase 9, which results in the apoptosis of the administered T cells and enhances safety of this agent. CD22, a B-lineage-restricted, transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is expressed on malignant B cells. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells
A population of autologous CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) that can be used for autotransplantation. CD34+ HPCs are isolated from human blood stem cells upon apheresis. Upon transplantation with the CD34+ HPCs, these cells can differentiate into a variety of cell types including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD38-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR38
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor (4SCAR) consisting of an anti-CD38 single chain variable fragment (scFv) that is coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains CD28, CD137, CD27 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and is fused with the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous CD38-4SCAR-expressing T cells 4SCAR38 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD38-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and induces activation of caspase 9, which results in the apoptosis of the administered T cells and enhances safety of this agent. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and hematologic malignancies, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD4- and CD8-positive truncated CD19-expressing antigen presenting T cells
A preparation of ex vivo expanded, autologous CD4 and CD8 positive antigen presenting T cells (T-APCs), genetically modified with a transgene encoding a truncated form of human cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19t), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon infusion, autologous CD19t-expressing T-APCs may stimulate the proliferation and activation of preadministered therapeutic CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T). This may both improve the persistence of the therapeutic CAR-T cells and prevent relapse in patients with CD19 positive leukemia or lymphoma. CD19 is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen that is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD5-specific CAR-28 zeta CAR T cells
Autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD5 single chain variable fragment (scFv) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the autologous CD5-specific CAR-28 zeta CAR T cells are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD5-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD5 is a T-cell surface glycoprotein expressed on the surface of normal T cells, and is overexpressed on various B- and T-cell malignancies; its expression is associated with poor prognosis.
autologous CD8+ melanoma-specific T cells
Autologous CD8 T lymphocytes against melanoma-associated antigens, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Following leukapheresis and the ex vivo expansion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, the autologous CD8+ melanoma-specific T cells are re-introduced into the melanoma patient. These cytotoxic T-cells recognize and kill the patient's own melanoma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CD8-positive PBL sensitized to Drosophila cell-presented melanoma peptides
A preparation of autologous CD8+ (cytotoxic) human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) sensitized to Drosophila cell-presented melanoma peptides, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous CD8+ T-lymphocytes, isolated from a melanoma patient, are exposed in vitro to melanoma peptide-pulsed HLA-A2-expressing Drosophila cells, expanded, and reintroduced into the patient; these tumor-reactive T-cells may stimulate a host immune response against tumor cells expressing the melanoma antigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Drosophila cells, which do not express any native MHC molecules, have been shown to potently stimulate tumor-reactivity in vitro from human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) when stably transfected with human MHC molecules and appropriate adhesion and costimulatory molecules. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CEA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
Autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Dendritic cells (DCs) isolated from the patient’s blood are infected with recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing the CEA gene. Exposure of T-lymphocytes to DCs creates CEA-specific CTLs which are expanded. Upon reintroduction of these CTLs into the patient, these cells recognize and kill CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor-associated antigen and a member of the CEA family of proteins, plays a key role in cell migration, cell invasion, and cell adhesion and is overexpressed by a variety of cancer types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous colon cancer cell vaccine
A personalized, proprietary cancer vaccine composed of sterile, irradiated, non-dividing, live colon cancer cells obtained from an individual after tumor resection, with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, the autologous colon cancer cell vaccine activates the immune system and elicits a cytotoxic T-lymphocytic (CTL) response against the residual colon cancer cells, which results in tumor cell death. This may prevent cancer recurrence. According to the vaccination schedule, the first two out of the four doses are co-administered with the immunoadjuvant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that non-specifically enhances the immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous colorectal tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous DCs pulsed with tumor cell lysates from a colorectal cancer patient containing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous colorectal tumor antigen-pulsed DC vaccine exposes the immune system to colorectal tumor cell antigens, which may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune responses against the colorectal cancer cells. This leads to cancer cell lysis. The tumor cell lysate contains a range of antigens that are essential for the neoplastic growth and survival of the cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous CT7/MAGE-A3/WT1 mRNA-electroporated Langerhans-type dendritic cells
An autologous tumor cell vaccine containing CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC)-derived Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LCs) electroporated with mRNA encoding the full-length cancer-testis antigens, CT7 and melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3), and the self-differentiation tumor antigen, Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. The autologous CT7/MAGE-A3/WT1 mRNA-electroporated Langerhans-type dendritic cells are prepared by drawing a blood sample containing the CD34+ HPCs from a cancer patient. The CD34+ HPCs are treated with a combination of cytokines which specifically support LC development, and the LC population is enriched and expanded ex vivo. The cultured LCs are allowed to mature for one day and then electroporated separately with CT7, MAGE-A3 or WT1 mRNA before final maturation. Upon intradermal administration into the patient, the mature LCs may activate cell-mediated immunity and induce both cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD4+ helper T cells against cancer cells expressing CT7, MAGE-A3 and WT1 tumor antigens. This may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, leading to tumor cell death. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are tumor-specific proteins overexpressed in a number of cancers but not in healthy tissues other than testis and placenta. WT1 is a transcription factor important in development and cancer pathogenesis, which is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including multiple myeloma, leukemia, ovarian cancer, malignant mesothelioma, neural tumors and renal carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous cultured acute myeloid leukemia-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A preparation of cytotoxic, autologous acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)-reactive T lymphocytes (CTL), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The autologous cultured AML-specific CTLs are prepared using a specific AML-CTL culture method. Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes are taken from an AML patient and the autologous AML blasts are treated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), both of which promote ex vivo differentiation of AML blasts into dendritic cells (DCs). In the same culture, T cells are treated and activated by low-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2), and expanded using anti-CD3. This results in cultured AML-reactive CTLs which are administered back into the patient after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT). The autologous cultured AML-specific CTLs may eradicate residual AML cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous cytokine-induced killer cells
A proprietary formulation of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) T lymphocytes, with immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. These CIK cells are generated by ex vivo incubation of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes with an undisclosed mixture of compounds to stimulate killer T-cell differentiation; this is followed by expansion of the cells. Upon reintroduction into the patient, the autologous CIK cells are able to target and kill tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced with MUC1 gene-transfected dendritic cells
A preparation of autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), specifically reactive to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mucin-1 (MUC1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are collected from the patient with MUC1-positive tumors and are exposed ex vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding MUC1 to generate MUC1-specific CTLs, which are subsequently expanded in vitro. Upon re-infusion of autologous CTLs induced with MUC1 gene-transfected DCs to the patient, the CTLs target and lyse the MUC1-expressing tumor cells. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation. MUC1 is expressed by a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced with MUC1 peptide-transfected dendritic cells
A preparation of autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), specifically reactive to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mucin-1 (MUC1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are collected from the patient with MUC1-positive tumors and are exposed ex vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) that are pulsed with a MUC1 peptide to generate MUC1-specific CTLs, which are subsequently expanded in vitro. Upon re-infusion of autologous CTLs induced with MUC1 peptide-pulsed DCs to the patient, the CTLs target and lyse the MUC1-expressing tumor cells. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation. MUC1 is expressed by a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell vaccine ACT2001
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous, immature dendritic cells (DCs), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon leukapheresis, immature DCs are isolated and re-administered intra-tumorally. The immature DCs internalize and process the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), migrate to the lymphatic system, and then expose the immune system to the TAAs. This induces a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the cancer cells leading to tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-adenovirus CCL21 vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) that have been transduced ex vivo with an adenoviral vector containing the CCL21 gene with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, autologous dendritic cell-adenovirus CCL21 vaccine expresses the chemokine CCL21, which may induce an antitumoral cytotoxic immune response in the tumor microenvironment. CCL21 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21] has been shown to attract antigen presenting cells (APCs), like leukocytes and DCs, and natural killer (NK) cells and their T-cell effectors to induce a cytotoxic immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-adenovirus p53 vaccine
An autologous vaccine composed of dendritic cells (DC) that have been transduced with a p53 tumor suppressor gene-modified virus. When the autologous dendritic cell-adenovirus p53 vaccine is administered, the host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are directed against p53-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-allogeneic melanoma tumor cell lysate vaccine
A cell-based vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysates from heat-treated allogeneic melanoma tumor cells. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-cell and antibody responses to melanoma cells bearing shared melanoma antigens such as MelanA/MART-1, gp100, MAGE3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-autologous tumor mRNA-human CD40L vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells transfected with autologous tumor mRNA and the human CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene with immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Vaccination with autologous dendritic cell-autologous tumor mRNA-human CD40L vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells from which the autologous tumor mRNA was derived. When expressed by dendritic cells, tumor antigens and the co-stimulatory molecule CD40L, which binds to CD40 receptors on antigen presenting cells (APC), facilitate both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic AV0113
A therapeutic interleukin-12 (IL-12)-expressing dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine composed of autologous monocyte-derived DCs loaded with autologous tumor cell lysate and exposed to the microbial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The monocyte-derived immature DCs are loaded with autologous tumor cell lysates and are subsequently exposed to LPS and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Upon administration of autologous DC-based immunotherapeutic AV0113, the mature DCs migrate into the lymph nodes, express the immune stimulatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) and activate the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Exposure to LPS and IFN-gamma allows the maturation of DCs and optimizes the presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by DCs to T-lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cells pulsed with MART-1 (26-35) peptide
A cell-based vaccine consisting of autologous HLA-A2*0201-restricted dendritic cells (DC), which were derived from patient-harvested adherent peripheral blood monocytes cultured in vitro with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), that were pulsed with a peptide fragment comprised of amino acid residues 26 through 35 of melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1 (26-35)), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal vaccination, autologous DC pulsed with MART-1 (26-35) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells expressing MART-1. MART-1, a protein involved in melanosome biogenesis, is overexpressed by melanoma cells. The MART-1 (26-35) peptide is highly immunogenic for the HLA-A2*0201 haplotype. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dendritic cell-tumor fusion vaccine
A therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) fused with autologous tumor cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Autologous dendritic cell-tumor fusion vaccine is generated in vitro by mixing DCs and irradiated tumor cells harvested from individual patients and treating them with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to produce DC-tumor cell fusion hybrid cells. Upon administration, autologous dendritic cell-tumor fusion vaccine may elicit antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous dinitrophenyl-modified ovarian cancer vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous ovarian cancer cell peptide antigens conjugated to the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Administration of autologous dinitrophenyl-modified ovarian cancer vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against ovarian cancer cells. DNP conjugation may enhance the immunogenicity of weakly immunogenic antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous EBV-CTL CD19CAR zeta
Autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that have been genetically modified to express a T-cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the CD19 antigen, with potential immunotherapeutic activity. The CAR consists of a single chain Fv of anti-CD19 IgG1 coupled with an intracellular signaling region of the zeta-chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3 zeta). Autologous EBV-CTL CD19CAR zeta directs the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells, stimulating a selective toxicity to tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid-tumor fusion cell vaccine
A cell-based vaccine composed of autologous tumor cells fused with Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous EGFRt/BCMA-41BBz-targeted CAR T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the CD3-zeta (CD3z) T-cell signaling domain, and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous EGFRt/BCMA-41BBz-targeted CAR T cells are directed to, and induce selective toxicity in, BCMA-expressing tumor cells. Devoid of both ligand-binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and, if the administered T cells cause unacceptable side effects, can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. BCMA, a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells.
autologous Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A preparation of lymphocytes harvested from a patient with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumor. Ex vivo, the lymphocytes are activated against EBV-specific antigens and then returned to the patient, where they mount a specific immune response against EBV-positive tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell vaccine
A cell-based vaccine composed of autologous lymphoblastoid B cells activated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro with potential immunoprotective activity. Upon prophylactic administration, this vaccine may stimulate specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against EBV-transformed B cells, thereby preventing an EBV-induced post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010
Multipotent self-renewing adherent non-hematopoietic stromal cells harvested from a patient's bone marrow and grown in vitro. When injected back into the patient, autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010 may differentiate into various mesenchyme-derived cell types and, in some instances, may augment bone marrow engraftment after whole-body irradiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous gamma-retroviral MSGV1 139 scFv EGFRvIII CAR gene-modified T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes transduced with the gamma retroviral vector MSGV1 expressing a chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) from a specific antibody clone (mAb139) that targets a mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) known as variant III (EGFRvIII; EGFR-vIII), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral administration, the gamma-retroviral MSGV1 139 scFv EGFRvIII CAR gene-modified T cells specifically target and bind to tumor cells expressing EGFRvIII, leading to selective cytotoxicity in EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells. EGFRvIII, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) encoded by an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7 in the EGFR gene, is specifically overexpressed by a subset of tumor cells and is not expressed in normal, healthy cells. It plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and radio- and chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous genetically modified MAGE-A4 C1032 T cells
Autologous human T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human melanoma antigen A4 (MAGE-A4), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon leukapheresis, isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous genetically-modified MAGE-A4 C1032 T cells bind to tumor cells expressing MAGE-A4. This may result in both inhibition of growth and increased cell death of MAGE-A4-expressing tumor cells. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A4, a member of the MAGE-A family of cancer testis antigens, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous glioma cell lysate
A cell lysate derived from glioma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, the autologous glioma cell lysate exposes the immune system to an undefined amount of glioma-type tumor associated antigens (TAA), which may result in the induction of both specific anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and antibody-dependent responses against the glioma TAA-expressing cells, resulting in glioma cell lysis.
autologous GM-CSF-secreting breast cancer vaccine
An autologous tumor cell vaccine containing irradiated breast cancer cells transfected with the granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Autologous breast cancer cells are transduced ex vivo with an adenovirus vector encoding the GM-CSF gene and irradiated and then reintroduced into the patient. Upon repeated subcutaneous administration of the vaccine, autologous GM-CSF-secreting breast cancer cells secrete GM-CSF, which may stimulate a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous GM-CSF-secreting lethally irradiated colorectal cancer cell vaccine
A lethally irradiated, autologous colorectal cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific colorectal cancer cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, the autologous GM-CSF-secreting lethally irradiated colorectal cancer cell vaccine releases GM-CSF. In turn, GM-CSF may increase the body's immune response against tumor cells by promoting the maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DCs), and enhancing tumor-specific antigen presentation to both B- and T-cells, which leads to better recognition of tumors by the immune system. In addition, GM-CSF promotes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous HBV-specific TCR-redirected T lymphocytes
A preparation of human autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a viral vector encoding for a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a human hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), with potential antineoplastic activity. Following administration, the autologous HBV antigen specific TCR-redirected autologous T lymphocytes recognize and bind to the HBV antigen-positive cells, which induces cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of HBV antigen-positive cancer cells. HBV antigens are found on HBV-positive cells and HPV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous heat-shock protein 70 peptide vaccine AG-858
A recombinant cancer vaccine made with tumor-derived heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) peptide complexes. HSP70 associates with antigenic peptides, transporting them into antigen presenting cells (APC) for processing. Tumor-derived HSP70-peptide complexes used in vaccine preparations have been shown to prime tumor immunity and tumor-specific T cells in animal models. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous HER2 chimeric receptor/TGFbeta dominant negative receptor-expressing EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A preparation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-resistant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) directed to EBV through their native receptor and HER2 through a retrovirally transduced HER2 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Autologous EBV-specific CTLs are produced by exposing autologous CTLs to "stimulator" autologous EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCLs). Subsequently, autologous EBV-specific CTLs are transduced with retroviral vectors expressing the mutant type II TGF-beta dominant-negative receptor (DNR), which blocks signaling by all three TGF-beta isoforms, and the HER2 CAR. After transduction, transgenic EBV-CTLs are expanded on EBV-LCLs. Upon administration, autologous HER2 chimeric receptor/TGFbeta dominant negative receptor-expressing EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes may bind to HER2-expressing tumors cells, which may result in CTL-mediated cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Tumor-expressed TGF-beta inhibits T lymphocyte activation and expansion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous HNSCC DNA-transfected semi-allogeneic fibroblasts MRC-5 vaccine
A vaccine consisting of lethally irradiated human fetal lung fibroblasts (Medical Research Council 5 or MRC-5) transfected with autologous tumor DNA derived from a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration, the autologous HNSCC DNA-transfected semi-allogeneic fibroblasts MRC-5 vaccine expresses HNSCC tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may activate the immune system to induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against HNSCC cells. The MRC-5 cell line, established in 1966, is a human diploid lung fibroblast cell line derived from the human lung tissue of a 14-week-old male fetus. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous HPV-16/18 E6/E7-specific TGF-beta-resistant T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-resistant cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) reactive to human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 E6/E7 antigens, with potential antineoplastic activity. Autologous T-lymphocytes from a HPV-positive cancer patient are exposed to and stimulated with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with the HPV-16/18 proteins E6 and E7. In turn, the HPV-16/18 E6/E7-specific T-lymphocytes are transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor, which blocks signaling mediated by all three TGF-beta isoforms. Following re-administration to patients with HPV-positive tumors, the HPV-16/18 E6/E7-specific TGF-beta-resistant T-lymphocytes target HPV16/18 E6/E7-positive cells, which may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response, followed by cell lysis and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Tumors expressing TGF-beta inhibit T-lymphocyte activation and expansion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous human anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes
A preparation of a defined ratio of CD4+ and bulk CD8+ autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a human anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous human anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous iC9-GD2-CAR-expressing VZV-specific T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the disialoganglioside GD2, which contains the signaling domains for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD134 (OX-40), and the suicide gene, inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9 or iC9), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, iC9-GD2-CD28-OX40-expressing T lymphocytes target the GD2 antigen on tumor cells for selective toxicity against GD2-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a full-length caspase 9, including its caspase recruitment domain, linked to a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V). If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered, which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug binding domain, activates caspase 9, and results in apoptosis of the administered T-cells. Expression of the iCasp9 gene in T cells for adoptive transfer increases safety and broadens the scope for their clinical applications. The tumor-associated antigen GD2 is overexpressed on the surface of almost all tumors of neuroectodermal origin. OX40 and CD28, both T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation. An additional VZV vaccine can be administered to increase T-cell activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous ICASP9-CD19-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the CD19 antigen, the suicide gene, inducible human caspase 9 (iCasp9 or iC9), and a truncated low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (deltaNGFR), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCasp9 construct consists of the entire coding sequence for the human FK506-drug binding protein (FKBP12) with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) that is linked to the gene encoding human caspase 9, which is deleted of its endogenous caspase activation and recruitment domains. Upon intravenous administration, autologous iCASP9-CD19-expressing T lymphocytes are selectively toxic to CD19-expressing tumor cells. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered, which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug binding domain, activates caspase 9, and results in apoptosis of the administered CAR19 T cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Prior to administration, deltaNGFR, is used to select the CAR19-transduced T cells for further enrichment by flow cytometry using an anti-NGFR antibody. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous iCASP9-CD19-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and the inducible suicide gene human caspase 9 (iCASP9 or iC9), that is linked to a drug binding domain, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The iCASP9 construct consists of the entire coding sequence for the human FK506-drug binding protein (FKBP12) with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) that is linked to the gene encoding iC9, which is a modified form of the CASP9 gene where the sequences encoding the endogenous caspase activation and recruitment domains have been deleted. Upon intravenous administration, autologous iCASP9-CD19-expressing T lymphocytes (iC9-CAR19 T cells) target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby selectively lysing these tumor cells. If the administered T cells cause unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903, which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug-binding domain, can be administered; this induces caspase 9 expression, and results in apoptosis of the administered iC9-CAR19 T cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies.
autologous IL-21-modulated CD8+ MART1-specific T cells
A preparation of interleukin 21 (IL-21) stimulated, CD8+ T-lymphocytes sensitized to MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells) antigen with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. CD8+ T-lymphocytes are exposed ex vivo to autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with MART-1 antigen peptide and grown in the presence of IL-21. These tumor-reactive T-cells may stimulate a host immune response against tumor cells expressing the MART-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. MART-1 is expressed by certain types of melanoma cells. IL-21, a cytokine involved in the regulation of cellular immune responses, may play a key role during priming of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and may enhance proliferation of the CTLs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous immunoglobulin idiotype-KLH conjugate vaccine
A cancer vaccine composed of tumor-specific idiotype determinants derived from an individual's tumor cells which are conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunostimulant carrier protein. When injected into the individual from whom the tumor cells were isolated, this vaccine may stimulate an antitumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocytic immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous interferon-producing killer dendritic cells
A preparation of autologous dendritic cells (DC) with a molecular expression profile similar to both natural killer (NK) cells and DCs, with potential antineoplastic activity. Autologous interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) are characterized by double-negative expression of CD3 and CD19; these cells also express low levels of CD11 and are positive for B220. They are distinguished from plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) by the absence of lymphocyte antigen 6C (Ly6C, Gr-1) expression. IKDCs produce interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL) -12, and are able to kill typical NK target cells using NK receptors while retaining DC-like antigen-presenting activity. Upon administration of the autologous IKDCs, these cells secrete high levels of IFN-gamma and, when in contact with tumor cells, mediate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-dependent direct lysis of tumor cells. The resulting apoptotic tumor antigens may be presented by the IKDCs, thus activating the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to further eliminate tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous LMP1-/LMP2- specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
A preparation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), specifically reactive to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane proteins (LMP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Autologous dendritic cells and EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from patients with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are transduced with an LMP1/LMP2-expressing adenoviral vector, are irradiated, and then are used to stimulate and expand autologous CTL to produce autologous LMP1-/LMP2-specific CTL ex vivo. Administration of autologous LMP1-/LMP2- specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes may result in a specific CTL response against tumor cells expressing LMP1 and LMP2, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in vivo. Among a limited set of viral antigens expressed by NPC cells, LMP1 and LMP2 are weak immunogens which, nevertheless, are capable of inducing a T-lymphocyte response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous lymphoid effector cells specific against tumor cells
A preparation of cytotoxic, autologous lymphoid effector cells specifically targeted towards tumor cells, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. The autologous lymphoid effector cells are prepared by drawing a blood sample containing the required precursors for CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells from a cancer patient. The precursor cells are activated, selected and expanded to generate mature autologous lymphoid effector cells with the potential for enhanced tumor recognition. Upon readministration into the patient, the autologous lymphoid effector cells may induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells. This may result in the immune-mediated inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, leading to tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous lymphoma cell lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysate from autologous lymphoma cells with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intranodal administration, autologous lymphoma cell lysate-pulsed autologous DC vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against lymphoma cells, which may result in lymphoma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous lymphoma cell/allogeneic dendritic cell electrofusion hybrid vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of hybrid cells created by electrofusing autologous dendritic cells (DCs) and allogeneic lymphoma cells with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, autologous lymphoma cell/allogeneic dendritic cell electrofusion hybrid vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against specific autologous lymphoma-associated antigens, resulting in lymphoma cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous lymphoma cell/autologous dendritic cell electrofusion hybrid vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of hybrid cells created by electrofusing autologous dendritic cells (DCs) and autologous lymphoma cells with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, autologous lymphoma cell/autologous dendritic cell electrofusion hybrid vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against specific autologous lymphoma-associated antigens, resulting in lymphoma cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous lymphoma immunoglobulin-derived scFV-chemokine DNA vaccine
A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding an autologous lymphoma-derived idiotype-targeting immunoglobulin (Ig)-derived single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP3a), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular vaccination, the autologous lymphoma immunoglobulin-derived scFv-chemokine DNA vaccine is taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and stimulates the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the idiotype expressed on the surface of B lymphoma cells. MIP3a, also called chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), is a chemotactic cytokine able to enhance the immune response through binding to chemokine receptors expressed on APCs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous MAGE-A10-specific HLA-A2-restricted TCR c796 gene-engineered T lymphocytes
Human autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted, human melanoma-associated antigen A10 (MAGE-A10), clone 796 (c796), with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from a patient, transduced with an anti-MAGE-A10(c796)-HLA-A2 restricted TCR, expanded ex vivo, and reintroduced into the HLA-A2-positive patient. Upon reintroduction, the autologous MAGE-A10-specific, HLA-A2-restricted TCR c796 gene-engineered lymphocytes bind to tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A10 antigen, which may induce cell death in and halt the growth of MAGE-A10-expressing cancer cells. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A10, a member of the MAGE-A family of cancer/testis tumor-associated antigens (CT-TAAs), is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types.
autologous MAGE-A3/A6-specific TCR gene-engineered lymphocytes KITE-718
Human autologous T lymphocytes genetically modified to express a T-cell receptor (TCR) that specifically targets human melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and MAGE-A6 (MAGEA3/A6; MAGE-A3/A6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from a patient, transduced with a gene expressing a TCR specific for the MAGE-A3/A6 antigens, expanded ex vivo, and reintroduced into the patient. Then, the autologous MAGE-A3/A6-specific TCR gene engineered lymphocytes KITE-718 target and bind to tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A3 and/or MAGE-A6 antigens. This halts the growth of and kills MAGE-A3/A6-expressing cancer cells. The tumor-associated antigens MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A6 are overexpressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous MAGE-A3-specific, HLA-A*01-restricted T cell receptor gene engineered lymphocytes
Human autologous T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*01-restricted, human melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from a patient, transduced with an anti-MAGE-A3-HLA-A*01 restricted TCR, expanded ex vivo, and reintroduced into the HLA-A*01-positive patient. Then, the autologous MAGE-A3-specific, HLA-A*01-restricted TCR gene engineered lymphocytes bind to tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A3 antigen, which may increase cell death and halt the growth of MAGE-A3-expressing cancer cells. The tumor-associated antigen MAGE-A3 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types.
autologous melanoma lysate/KLH-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysate from autologous melanoma cells containing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) and conjugated to the immunostimulant Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous melanoma lysate/KLH-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against melanoma cells, which may result in melanoma cell lysis. KLH is an immunogenic carrier and serves as an immunostimulant to improve antigenic immune recognition and T-cell responses and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous melanoma lysate/NY-ESO-1-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with both a lysate from autologous melanoma cells containing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) and a synthetic peptide derived from the tumor associated antigen human cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous melanoma lysate/NY-ESO-1-pulsed autologous DC vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody-mediated immune responses against melanoma cells, which may result in melanoma cell lysis. NY-ESO-1 is expressed in normal testes and on the surfaces of various tumor cells, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous melanoma lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with lysate from autologous melanoma cells containing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous melanoma lysate-pulsed autologous DC vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against melanoma cells, which may result in melanoma cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous mesenchymal stem cells apceth_101
Human autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from the bone marrow of a patient and genetically modified with a self-inactivating retroviral vector expressing the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), that can be used to activate synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues when co-administered. Upon intravenous administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells apceth_101, the cells are actively recruited to the tumor stroma, differentiate into more mature mesenchymal cells, and become part of the tumor microenvironment. When a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, such as ganciclovir, is co-administered, the HSV-TK within the HSV-TK-transduced MSCs will monophosphorylate this prodrug. Subsequently the monophosphate form is further converted to the diphosphate form and then to its active triphosphate form by cellular kinases. The active form of ganciclovir kills the HSV-TK-transduced MSCs and leads to a bystander effect, which eliminates neighboring cancer cells. Therefore, synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues are activated only at the tumor site, which increases their local efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous mesothelin-specific CAR-T cells
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a gene encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mesothelin, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous mesothelin-specific CAR-T cells specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.
autologous mRNA-modified anti-cMET CAR-T cells
A preparation of autologous, genetically-engineered T lymphocytes that have been electroporated with an mRNA encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or cMET) single chain variable fragment (scFv), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous mRNA-modified anti-cMET CAR-T cells direct T cells to cMET-expressing tumor cells, which induces selective toxicity against cMET-expressing tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. cMET, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
autologous MUC1-mannan fusion protein pulsed dendritic cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine containing autologous dendritic cells pulsed with a fusion product of an epitope of human tumor-associated epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) antigen and the vaccine adjuvant mannan (oxidized mannose), with potential antineoplastic activity. When the modified dendritic cells are returned to the patient, they may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the MUC1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Addition of manna in this vaccine, enhances immune recognition. MUC1 antigen, a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed on many tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

1 comentario:

  1. MCL 0020 is an effective and selective antagonist of peptidemimetic melanocortin MC4 receptor (IC50 =11.63 nM), exhibits anxiolytic-like activity in vivo. MCL 0020

    ResponderEliminar