Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Modeling and rescue of defective blood–brain barrier function of induced brain microvascular endothelial cells from childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy patients
- Catherine A. A. Lee†,
- Hannah S. Seo†,
- Anibal G. Armien,
- Frank S. Bates,
- Jakub Tolar† and
- Samira M. Azarin†
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS201815:9
© The Author(s) 2018
Received: 19 December 2017
Accepted: 6 March 2018
Published: 4 April 2018
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brain endothelium that constitutes the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Mutation information and molecular markers investigated to date are not predictive of conversion. Prior reports have focused on toxic metabolic byproducts and reactive oxygen species as instigators of cerebral inflammation and subsequent immune cell invasion leading to BBB breakdown. This study focuses on the BBB itself and evaluates differences in brain endothelium integrity using cells from ccALD patients and wild-type (WT) controls.
The blood–brain barrier of ccALD patients and WT controls was modeled using directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into induced brain microvascular endothelial cells (iBMECs). Immunocytochemistry and PCR confirmed characteristic expression of brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) markers. Barrier properties of iBMECs were measured via trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), sodium fluorescein permeability, and frayed junction analysis. Electron microscopy and RNA-seq were used to further characterize disease-specific differences. Oil-Red-O staining was used to quantify differences in lipid accumulation. To evaluate whether treatment with block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PEO–PPO) could mitigate defective properties, ccALD-iBMECs were treated with PEO–PPO block copolymers and their barrier properties and lipid accumulation levels were quantified.
iBMECs from patients with ccALD had significantly decreased TEER (2592 ± 110 Ω cm2) compared to WT controls (5001 ± 172 Ω cm2). They also accumulated lipid droplets to a greater extent than WT-iBMECs. Upon treatment with a PEO–PPO diblock copolymer during the differentiation process, an increase in TEER and a reduction in lipid accumulation were observed for the polymer treated ccALD-iBMECs compared to untreated controls.
The finding that BBB integrity is decreased in ccALD and can be rescued with block copolymers opens the door for the discovery of BBB-specific molecular markers that can indicate the onset of ccALD and has therapeutic implications for preventing the conversion to ccALD.
AdrenoleukodystrophyIn vitro human blood–brain barrier (BBB) modelBrain microvascular endothelial cellsTrans-endothelial electrical resistanceHuman induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)Amphiphilic block copolymers
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