Hum Pathol. 2018 Apr 30. pii: S0046-8177(18)30147-3. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2018.04.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Clinical utility of EZH1 mutations in the diagnosis of follicular-patterned thyroid tumors.
Follicular-patterned tumors of the thyroid gland are characterized by a predominantly follicular growth pattern. They frequently harbor RAS mutations, not BRAF mutations. Technological advances in molecular testing have discovered novel RAS-type mutations. However, clinical significance of these mutations remains unknown. We investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of mutations of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, EZH1, EIF1AX, and TERT genes by Sanger sequencing in a series of 201 follicular-patterned thyroid tumors including follicular adenoma (n=40), Hürthle cell adenoma (n=54), noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features (n=50), follicular thyroid carcinoma (n=40), Hürthle cell carcinoma (n=10), and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma arising in a well differentiated follicular neoplasm (n=7), and 120 classic papillary carcinoma. Two hot spots of EZH1 mutations were only found in in RAS-negative follicular-patterned tumors. EZH1 mutations were detected in 3% of follicular adenoma and in 20% of Hürthle cell adenoma, and one minimally invasive Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thyroid tumors with EZH1 mutations reported in the literature were benign in most cases. Otherwise they were minimally invasive or non-invasive cancer. EIF1AX mutation was found in one follicular adenoma. We confirmed the presence of RAS mutations and BRAF K601E mutation in benign, borderline, and malignant follicular-patterned tumors. No BRAF V600E was found in all follicular-patterned tumors. This study also confirmed the occurrence of TERT promoter mutations in high-risk thyroid cancers. These genetic markers can be used for the diagnostic purpose and risk stratification of thyroid nodules.
BRAF; EZH1; Molecular Diagnostics; RAS Genes; TERT; Thyroid Nodule
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