Cancer Genet. 2018 Aug;224-225:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2018.04.002. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
Clinical germline diagnostic exome sequencing for hereditary cancer: Findings within novel candidate genes are prevalent.
Powis Z1, Espenschied CR2, LaDuca H2, Hagman KD3, Paudyal T4, Li S5, Inaba H6, Mauer A7, Nathanson KL8, Knost J9, Chao EC10, Tang S3.
Clinical diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) has been effective in diagnosing individuals with suspected genetic conditions; nevertheless little has been described regarding its clinical utility in individuals with a personal and family history of cancer. This study aimed to assess diagnostic yield and clinical characteristics of pediatric and adult patients undergoing germline DES for hereditary cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 2171 patients referred for DES; cases with a personal and/or family history of cancer were further studied. Of 39 cancer patients, relevant alterations were found in eight individuals (21%), including one (3%) positive pathogenic alteration within a characterized gene, two (5%) uncertain findings in characterized genes, and five (13%) alterations in novel candidate genes. Two of the 5 pediatric patients, undergoing testing, (40%) had findings in novel candidate genes, with the remainder being negative. We include brief case studies to illustrate the variety of challenging issues related to these patients. Our observations demonstrate utility of family-based exome sequencing in patients for suspected hereditary cancer, including familial co-segregation analysis, and comprehensive medical review. DES may be particularly useful when traditional approaches do not result in a diagnosis or in families with unique phenotypes. This work also highlights the importance and complexity of analysis of uncharacterized genes in exome sequencing for hereditary cancer.
Diagnostic exome sequencing; Germline testing; Hereditary cancer; Novel genetic etiology