Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Apr 30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-018-5088-2. [Epub ahead of print]
Biomarkers of Barrett's Esophagus: From the Laboratory to Clinical Practice.
The currently recommended approach to managing cancer risk for patients with Barrett's esophagus is endoscopic surveillance including a biopsy protocol to sample the esophageal tissue randomly to detect dysplasia. However, there are numerous limitations in this practice that rely on the histopathological grading of dysplasia alone to make clinical decisions. The availability of in silico models demonstrating the potential cost-effectiveness of biomarker-based stratification has increased interest in finding a clinically relevant "Barrett's biomarker." The success of endoscopic eradication therapy in preventing neoplastic progression of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus has promoted the desire to stratify non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus to those with "high risk" that may benefit from endotherapy. Furthermore, on the other end of the spectrum, there is interest in searching for a "low risk" marker that may identify those that would not likely benefit from endoscopy screening or surveillance. This review highlights recent data from the genomics (r)evolution revealing new genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to the development of Barrett's esophagus and novel pathways for its neoplastic progression, addresses the development of new modes of tissue sampling and imaging to detect early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus, and discusses current progress in moving biomarkers from the laboratory into clinical practice in the era of precision medicine.
Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopic imaging; Endotherapy; Genomics; Risk Stratification