lunes, 26 de junio de 2017

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute | S-2

NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute



Instituto Nacional Del Cáncer



332 results found for: S
spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle NU-0129
A spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle formulation composed of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the Bcl-2-like protein 12 (BCL2L12) sequence and conjugated to gold nanoparticles, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of SNA NU-0129, the siRNA prevents the translation of the BCL2L12 gene. Inhibiting the expression of BCL2L12 by NU-0129 induces tumor cell apoptosis. Bcl2L12, a protein belonging to the Bcl-2 protein family, is overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and plays a role in tumor cell progression and tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. NU-0129 is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitor ABC294640
An orally available, aryladamantane compound and selective inhibitor of sphingosine kinase-2 (SK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABC294640 competitively binds to and inhibits SK2, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic amino alcohol sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the lipid mediator that is pro-survival and critical for immunomodulation. This may eventually lead to the induction of apoptosis and may result in an inhibition of cell proliferation in cancer cells overexpressing SK2. SK2 and its isoenzyme SK1 are overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Spiriva
(Other name for: tiotropium bromide monohydrate)
spirogermanium
A synthetic organometallic compound containing the element germanium with possible antineoplastic activity. Spirogermanium exhibits significant toxicity, particularly neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spiromustine
A bifunctional nitrogen alkylating agent with antineoplastic activity and lipophilic properties. Containing a lipophilic hydantoin group that serves as a carrier to cross the blood brain barrier, spiromustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spironolactone
A synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spiroplatin
A synthetic derivative of cyclohexane sulfatoplatinum with antineoplastic properties. Spiroplatin induces DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Similar to other platinum compounds, this agent has been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659
An inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (syk), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and antineoplastic activities. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659 may inhibit the activity of syk, which abrogates downstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of B-cell activation, chemotaxis, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a BCR-associated non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
splicing inhibitor H3B-8800
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, H3B-8800 binds to and blocks the activity of SF3B1, a core spliceosome protein that is mutated in various cancer cells. This modulates RNA splicing by preventing aberrant mRNA splicing by the spliceosome, blocks RNA mis-splicing, enhances proper RNA splicing and prevents the expression of certain tumor-associated genes. This leads to an induction of apoptosis and prevents tumor cell proliferation. In many cancer cells, core spliceosome proteins, including SF3B1, U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1), serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor subunit-related protein 2 (ZRSR2), are mutated and aberrantly activated leading to a dysregulation of mRNA splicing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sporanox
(Other name for: itraconazole)
Sprycel
(Other name for: dasatinib)
spyrine
(Other name for: trientine hydrochloride)
SR31747A
A synthetic peripheral sigma receptor ligand with immunomodulatory and potential antitumor activities. Although the exact mechanism by which SR31747A exerts its antitumor effects has not been fully established, SR31747A binds to and inhibits the sigma1 receptor (SR31747A-binding protein-1 or SR-BP1), human sterol isomerase (emopamil-binding protein) and the sigma2 receptor, which may result in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Upregulated in various cancers, the sigma1 and sigma2 receptors and human sterol isomerase are proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391
An orally bioavailable small molecule Src kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 specifically binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase; inhibition of kinase activity may result in the inhibition of primary tumor growth and the suppression of metastasis. Src tyrosine kinases are upregulated in many tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 ointment
An ointment containing an inhibitor for both Src tyrosine kinase and tubulin polymerization, with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase, upon topical application. This inhibits both downstream signaling and the proliferation of tumor cells overexpressing Src. Src tyrosine kinase, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, motility, invasiveness and survival. KX2-391 also binds to tubulin heterodimers and inhibits microtubule polymerization, which disrupts microtubule formation and mitosis, leading to further inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, KX2-391 inhibits T-cell migration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0424
An orally bioavailable small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets both Abl and Src kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD0424 selectively inhibits both Src and Abl kinase activity which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth in susceptible tumor cells. Src and Abl kinases are upregulated in certain tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
src/tubulin inhibitor KX02
A lipophilic, orally available inhibitor of both Src kinase activity and tubulin polymerization, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, src/tubulin inhibitor KX02 binds to and inhibits the activity of Src kinase. This inhibits both downstream signaling and the proliferation of Src kinase-expressing tumor cells. KX02 also binds to tubulin heterodimers and inhibits microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting microtubule formation, mitosis, and further proliferation. Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SR-T100 gel
A cutaneous gel preparation containing an extract from Solanum incanum with potential antineoplastic activity. SR-T100 gel contains high amounts of the steroidal alkaloid glycoside solamargine. Solamargine is able to upregulate expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 6 (TNFRSF6 or Fas), and their signaling adaptors TNFR1-associated death domain, and Fas-associated death domain. In addition, this agent is able to upregulate expression of apoptosis promoter Bax, and suppress the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Altogether, this induces apoptosis in tumor cells and may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SS1(dsFv)-PE38 immunotoxin
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the single chain anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody SS1(dsFv) linked to Pseudomonas exotoxin PE-38. The monoclonal antibody moiety of the agent binds to cells that express mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer, mesotheliomas, and some squamous cell carcinomas; after internalization, the exotoxin moiety inactivates eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, thereby disrupting tumor cell protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SSD
(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)
SSTR2-targeting protein/DM1 conjugate PEN-221
A miniaturized drug conjugate composed of a peptide analog of somatostatin that targets the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and is conjugated, through a cleavable linker, to the microtubule-binding cytotoxic maytansinoid DM1 (mertansine), with potential anti-tumor activity. Upon administration, the peptide ligand moiety of PEN-221 targets and binds to SSTR2, which is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types. Binding stimulates SSTR2-mediated endocytosis of the agent; upon internalization, the DM1 moiety is released and binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This inhibits both cell division and the proliferation of SSTR2-expressing cancer cells. Compared to antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), miniaturized drug conjugates are much smaller and can more easily penetrate and distribute in dense tumor tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
St. John's wort
An herbal extract prepared from the plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) with photodynamic, antineoplastic, and antidepressant activities. Hypericin, one of the active compounds found in Hypericum perforatum, is a photosensitizer that, when exposed to a particular wavelength and intensity of light, may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Another compound, hyperforin, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines. Hypericum perforatum preparations may also stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters, resulting in increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents and other drugs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent
An injectable ultrasound contrast media formulation composed of microbubbles of stabilized sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in sodium chloride solution. With stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent, ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microbubble-blood interface during ultrasound imaging, thereby enhancing blood vessel visualization and the contrast between blood vessels and adjacent tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stakel
(Other name for: padeliporfin)
standardized freeze-dried table grape powder
A standardized freeze-dried preparation of desiccated table grapes containing polyphenols (including flavanols, anthocyanins, flavonols, and stilbenes such as resveratrol) and other unidentified compounds with antioxidant activity. Standardized freeze-dried table grape powder increases serum antioxidant activity and reduces the macrophage-mediated oxidation and uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This agent has been shown to inhibit genes linked to the development of sporadic colorectal cancer and may exhibit chemopreventive activity for other human cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stanford V regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide and prednisone, administered on a compressed schedule and used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma; it may be followed by consolidative radiation therapy. (NCI Thesaurus)
staphylococcus aureus protein A
A protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Starlix
(Other name for: nateglinide)
STAT inhibitor OPB-111077
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of one or more signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein(s), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, OPB-111077 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of STATs. This prevents binding of STATs to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT-responsive gene promoters, which may result in the inhibition of both STAT-mediated transcription and tumor cell proliferation. STATs are constitutively activated in a variety of cancers and play a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464
An antisense oligonucleotide targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) with potential antitumor activity. STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464 binds to STAT3 mRNA, thereby inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of STAT3 expression induces tumor cell apoptosis and decreases tumor cell growth. STAT3, a protein overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide
A double-stranded 15-mer oligonucleotide, corresponding closely to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) response element within the c-fos promoter, with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide binds specifically to activated STAT3 and blocks binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters, which results in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor OPB-31121
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. OPB-31121 inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3, which prevents binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters and may result in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602 inhibits the phosphorylation and thus the activation of STAT3 protein, impeding STAT3 protein from translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and thereby blocking STAT3's regulation of gene expression through direct binding to the promoters of responsive genes. STAT3 regulates the cellular functions that lead to the cancer phenotype, and constitutive activation of STAT3 is observed in a wide range of human cancers, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Statex SR
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
stavudine
A synthetic nucleoside, analog of didehydro-3-deoxythymidine with potent antiretroviral activity. In vivo, stavudine is phosphorylated by cellular kinases to the active metabolite stavudine triphosphate; this metabolite inhibits the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase both by competing with the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate and by incorporation into viral DNA causing a termination of DNA chain elongation (due to the lack the essential 3'-OH group). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stelara
(Other name for: ustekinumab)
Stelazine
(Other name for: trifluoperazine hydrochloride)
Sterile Talc Powder
(Other name for: talc)
Steritalc
(Other name for: talc)
steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495
An orally bioavailable tricyclic coumarin-based sulfamate with potential antineoplastic activity. Steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495 selectively binds to and inhibits steroid sulfatase (STS), which may inhibit the production of locally active estrogens and so inhibit estrogen-dependent cell growth in tumor cells, such as those of the breast, ovary, and endometrium. STS is a cytoplasmic enzyme responsible for the conversion of circulating inactive estrone sulfate and estradiol sulfate to biologically active unconjugated estrone and estradiol, respectively. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stilbestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilbetin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilboestroform
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilboestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stimate
(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
Stimuvax
(Other name for: emepepimut-S)
STING agonist MK-1454
A synthetic cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and agonist of stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral (IT) administration, STING agonist MK-1454 binds to STING and activates the STING pathway, which promotes IKK-related kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment; this leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). Specifically, expression of IFN-beta (IFNb) enhances the cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens by CD8alpha-positive and CD103-positive dendritic cells (DCs) to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This results in a CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING-activating cyclic dinucleotide agonist ADU-S100
A synthetic, cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and agonist of stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING; transmembrane protein 173; TMEM173), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the STING agonist MIW815 binds to STING and stimulates STING-mediated pathways. This activates the immune response through the activation of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), which induces the expression of cytokines and chemokines, and leads to an antigen-specific T-cell mediated immune response against cancer cells. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stivarga
(Other name for: regorafenib)
Stoxil
(Other name for: idoxuridine)
Strattera
(Other name for: atomoxetine hydrochloride)
strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixture
A dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of strawberries, blackberries, black raspberries and blueberries with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action through which berries may exert their anti-tumor effect has yet to be elucidated, in vivo studies suggest that the ingestion of a mixture of berries seems to result in a reduction in tumor growth and tumor development. As berries are rich in phytonutrients, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, ellagitannins, galltannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, the antineoplastic effects of strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixture on cancer cells may be attributable to phytonutrient antioxidant and apoptotic activities. In addition, phytoestrogens in berries may be protective against estrogen-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptavidin
An extracellular protein that has four high affinity binding sites for biotin. Streptavidin is widely utilized in fluorescence microscopy applications due to the ease with which a conjugate fluorescent moiety can be coupled to the protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptonigrin
An aminoquinone antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces flocculus. Streptonigrin complexes with DNA and topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA cleavage and inhibition of DNA replication and RNA synthesis. This agent also acts as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and causes free radical-mediated cellular damage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptozocin
A methylnitrosourea antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes. Streptozocin alkylates DNA, forming inter-strand DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Due to its glucose moiety, this agent is readily taken up by pancreatic beta cells, inducing diabetes mellitus at high concentrations. Unlike other nitrosoureas, streptozocin causes little myelosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stromagen
(Other name for: autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010)
strontium chloride Sr 89
The chloride salt of a radioactive isotope of strontium. Strontium chloride Sr 89 is taken up and incorporated preferentially in metastatic lesions in bone where it emits cytotoxic beta radiation, resulting in an inhibition and/or reduction of tumor growth and so tumor-related bone pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SU014813
An orally-active, tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. SU014813 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha and beta, c-Kit and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt-3). This leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and an induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sublimaze
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)
substance P-saporin
An agent composed of substance P (SP) conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein and neurotoxin saporin (SAP), isolated from the seeds of the plant Saponaria officinalis (SP-SAP), with potential analgesic activity. Upon administration, SP-SAP targets the SP receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), located on neurons. When SP-SAP binds NK-1R and the receptor/conjugate complex internalizes, the saporin moiety inactivates ribosomes and prevents protein synthesis, which causes cell death, destroys NK-1R-expressing nerves and decreases pain perception. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.
Sufenta
(Other name for: sufentanil citrate)
sufentanil citrate
The citrate salt form of sufentanil, a synthetic congener of fentanyl and related to the phenylpieridines, with analgesic property. Sufentanil citrate binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor, thereby producing analgesia, respiratory depression, miosis, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and euphoria. In addition, this agent has a more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of action compared to fentanyl. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sufentanil transdermal system
A transdermal matrix patch formulation containing the synthetic opioid sufentanil with analgesic activity. Sufentanil binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of the endogenous opioids. Binding of sufentanil to opioid receptors stimulates exchange of GTP for GDP, inhibits adenylate cyclase, and decreases intracellular cAMP. This inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, sufentanil closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in hyperpolarization of neuronal membranes and a reduction in neuronal excitability, and, subsequently, analgesia and sedation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sufortan
(Other name for: penicillamine)
sugammadex sodium
The sodium salt form of the biologically inert, selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) sugammadex, a modified, anionic gamma cyclodextrin derivative containing a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic core, with neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) reversal activity. Upon administration, the negatively charged carboxyl-thio-ether groups of sugammadex selectively and reversibly bind to the positively charged quaternary nitrogen of a steroidal NMBD, which was administered at an earlier time for anesthetic purposes. The encapsulation of the NMBD by sugammadex blocks its ability to bind to nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction and thereby reverses the NMBD-induced neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex binds rocuronium, vecuronium, and to a lesser extent pancuronium. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulfamethoprim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
sulfasalazine
A synthetic salicylic acid derivative with affinity for connective tissues containing elastin and formulated as a prodrug, antiinflammatory sulfasalazine acts locally in the intestine through its active metabolites, sulfamide 5-aminosalicylic acid and salicylic acid, by a mechanism that is not clear. It appears inhibit cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin production and is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulfatinib
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1), with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon oral administration, sulfatinib binds to and inhibits VEGFRs and FGFR1 thereby inhibiting VEGFR- and FGFR1-mediated signal transduction pathways. This leads to a reduction of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in VEGFR/FGFR1-overexpressing tumor cells. Expression of VEGFRs and FGFR1 may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulfatrim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Sulforadex
(Other name for: sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01)
sulforaphane
A naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates. As the aglycone metabolite of glucosinolate glucoraphanin (sulforaphane glucosinolate), sulforaphane acts as an antioxidant and potent stimulator of endogenous detoxifying enzymes. This agent displays anticarcinogenic properties due to its ability to induce phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, thereby providing protection against certain carcinogens and toxic, reactive oxygen species. Broccoli sprouts contain large amounts of sulforaphane, which is also found in other cruciferous vegetables including cabbage and kale. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01
An orally available, stable powder formulation composed of sulforaphane, a naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates, encapsulated within alpha-cyclodextrin, with chemopreventive activity. Upon administration of sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01, sulforaphane activates the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; NFE2L2), a member of the basic leucine zipper family, which binds to and activates antioxidant-response elements (AREs). Subsequently, activated AREs mediate the transcription of various cytoprotective genes and antioxidant enzymes, particularly phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone oxidoreductase, resulting in the detoxification of highly reactive carcinogens. Cyclodextrin is able to prevent sulforaphane's rapid breakdown, which improves its stability and half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulfur hexafluoride
A contrast agent composed of an inorganic fluorinated inert gas comprised of six fluoride atoms bound to one sulfur atom, with potential diagnostic activity upon imaging. Upon inhalation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas is distributed throughout the lungs. Upon subsequent ultrasound imaging, the lung vasculature can be imaged and pulmonary perfusion can be assessed. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulindac
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Converted in vivo to an active metabolite, sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), blocks cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE), an enzyme that inhibits the normal apoptosis signal pathway; this inhibition permits the apoptotic signal pathway to proceed unopposed, resulting in apoptotic cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulmeprim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
sulofenur
A diarylsulfonylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Sulofenur's antineoplastic mechanism of action is unknown. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sumac/black cumin powder
An Iranian traditional herbal medicine composed of powder derived from sumac and Bunium persicum (black cumin, black zira), with potential anti-emetic activity. Upon oral administration, sumac/black cumin powder may inhibit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The powder may also have some anti-oxidant activities. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sumatriptan succinate
The succinate salt form of sumatriptan, a member of the triptan class of compounds with anti-migraine property. Sumatriptan succinate selectively binds to and activates serotonin 5-HT1 receptors. This results in constriction of meningeal, dural, cerebral or pial blood vessels via stimulation of the 5-HT1B receptors, thereby reducing the vascular pulsation and may provide relief in migraine headaches. Furthermore, agonistic action of this agent through presynaptic stimulation of 5-HT1D and/or 5-HT1F receptors prevents release of vasoactive and pro-inflammatory neuropeptide (calcitonin gene-related peptide), thereby may also relieve migraine headaches. In addition, central inhibition of pain transmission via the inhibition of trigeminal neurons in the brain stems and upper spinal cord mediated by 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D or 5-HT 1F receptors also aides in the alleviation of migraine pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Summicort
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
sunitinib malate
The orally bioavailable malate salt of an indolinone-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sunitinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFRb), and c-kit, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits the phosphorylation of Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), another receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by some leukemic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sunscreen
A substance that helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays. Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation. Using lotions, creams, or gels that contain sunscreens can help protect the skin from premature aging and damage that may lead to skin cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Supect
(Other name for: radotinib hydrochloride)
superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803
A fusion protein complex composed of a mutated form of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 (IL-15N72D) and a soluble, dimeric IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ra) Fc fusion protein (IL-15Ra-Fc) (IL-15N72D/IL-15Ra-Fc), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803 binds to the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta-common gamma chain (IL-2Rbetagamma) receptor on natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which activates and increases the levels of NK cells and memory CD8+(CD44high) T-cells. The memory T-cells enhance the secretion of the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-g), which further potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. This may increase tumor cell killing and decrease tumor cell proliferation. IL-15 regulates CD8+ T and NK cell development, activation and proliferation. By coupling IL-15 to IL15Ra-Fc, this agent has a prolonged drug half-life and shows an increased ability to bind IL-2Rbetagamma, which enhances its immune stimulatory activity as compared to IL-15 alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse
An aqueous oral rinse composed of an electrolyte solution supersaturated with phosphate and calcium ions with antimucositis and analgesic activities. This solution may help relieve mucositis and mucositis-induced pain by restoring the natural electrolyte and pH balance of human saliva and lubricating mucosal tissues of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
supinoxin
(Other name for: P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902)
Supprelin
(Other name for: histrelin acetate)
Suprane
(Other name for: desflurane)
Suprax
(Other name for: cefixime)
Suprep®
(Other name for: sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate-based laxative)
suramin
A polysulphonated naphthylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Suramin blocks the binding of various growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), to their receptors, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. This agent also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis; retroviral reverse transcriptase; uncoupling of G-proteins from receptors; topoisomerases; cellular folate transport; and steroidogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin antigen
A tumor-associated antigen. Vaccination with survivin antigen may result in a cytotoxic T-cell response against survivin antigen-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Overexpressed in many tumors, endogenous survivin inhibits tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin antigen vaccine DPX-Survivac
A lipid depot-based therapeutic cancer vaccine composed of survivin epitopes, a universal T Helper peptide and a polynucleotide adjuvant encapsulated in liposomes and then formulated in the hydrophobic carrier Montanide ISA51 VG, with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon injection of the survivin antigen vaccine DPX-Survivac, a depot is created at the injection site from which the antigens and adjuvant are released. This vaccine may elicit a long lasting cellular response against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an induction of tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin mRNA antagonist EZN-3042
A locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotide targeting survivin mRNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. EZN-3042 hybridizes to survivin mRNA, thereby blocking translation of survivin protein and inhibiting survivin-induced anti-apoptotic activity and promoting tumor cell apoptosis in survivin-overexpressing tumor cells. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. LNAs contain a methylene bridge linking 2'-oxygen and 4'-carbon of ribose sugar rings, thereby increasing their stability and decreasing degradation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccine
A modified recombinant nonapeptide (LMLGEFLKL) derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccine may elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. The survivin protein inhibits caspase activation and apoptosis; it is undetectable in normal adult tissues but is expressed by several human cancers including lung, colon, breast, pancreas, and prostate cancer as well as hematopoietic malignancies and skin cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin/p53/HER2 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) derived from survivin, p53 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ERBB2), with immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, this DC vaccine may elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these TAAs, resulting in tumor cell death. Survivin, p53 and HER2 are essential in neoplastic growth, and are considered to be universal tumor antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sustained-exposure dexamethasone formulation OTO-104
A sustained-release (SR) poloxamer hydrogel formulation containing the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DXM), with potential otoprotective and anti-apoptotic activities. Prior to the administration of an ototoxic drug and upon intratympanic (IT) injection of the DXM sustained-exposure formulation OTO-104, DXM is slowly released from the hydrogel over time; DMX then binds to glucocorticoid nuclear receptors, and activates cell survival pathways. This prevents ototoxic drug-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating anti-oxidant enzymes, blocking the activation of inflammatory cytokines and inducing stress signaling pathways, which ultimately prevents apoptosis of auditory hair cells in the inner ear compartment. This prevents or reduces drug-induced ototoxicity caused by certain therapeutic agents, such as platinum-based anticancer agents. This may reduce or prevent hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The SR formulation provides increased concentrations of DXM in the inner ear and maintains the elevated levels for a longer time without the need of the multiple IT injections needed when using non-SR DXM formulations. This agent also reduces the symptoms of certain ear-related disorders. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sustained-release mitomycin C hydrogel formulation
A sustained-release (SR) hydrogel polymer-based formulation containing the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C (MMC), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon local administration of the SR MMC hydrogel formulation to the upper urinary tract via a ureteral catheter, the gel solidifies and deposits MMC locally to prevent the excretion of this chemotherapeutic agent via urinary flow. In turn, MMC alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Due to its reverse thermal-gelation properties, this gel is able to stay in a liquid state at cold temperatures and solidifies at body temperature. This allows for increased accumulation of MMC locally in the upper urinary tract which leads to increased efficacy compared to standard intravesical delivery of MMC for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sustiva
(Other name for: efavirenz)
Sustol
(Other name for: extended-release granisetron polymer formulation)
Sutent
(Other name for: sunitinib malate)
SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine containing a 15-mer peptide (DLAQMFFCFKELEGW), with C to M alteration at amino acid position 57, derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin, and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration of SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccine, this peptide is able to bind both HMC class I and II molecules and may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as well as a T-helper cell response against survivin-expressing cancer cells. This may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and ultimately tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, expressed during embryonic development while absent in most normal adult cells, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. KLH may enhance immune recognition and may promote an enhanced response. As SVN53-67 is weakly immunogenic in humans, the M57 alteration may lead to greater affinity towards HLA-A*0201 and thus an enhanced antitumor immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Syk inhibitor HMPL-523
An orally available inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration of Syk inhibitor HMPL-523, this agent binds to and inhibits the activity of Syk. This inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, which leads to the inhibition of B-cell activation, and prevents tumor cell activation, migration, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a non-receptor cytoplasmic, BCR-associated tyrosine kinase, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies; it plays a key role in B-cell receptor signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070
An orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus-associated kinases (JAK), with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070 specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of Syk, JAK1, and JAK3 with preferential inhibition of JAK1 and JAK3-dependent cytokine-mediated signaling and functional responses. This negatively affects the downstream JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, and leads to both reduced inflammation in various animal models and enhanced antiproliferative activity towards non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cell lines. Syk is a non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction in cells of hematopoietic origin including B cells, macrophages, basophils and neutrophils. Abnormal function of Syk has been implicated in several hematopoietic malignancies including NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in the signaling of many cytokines and growth factors and is involved in cellular proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and the immune response; JAK kinases may be upregulated in inflammatory diseases, myeloproliferative disorders, and various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sylatron
(Other name for: peginterferon alfa-2b)
Sylvant
(Other name for: siltuximab)
Symadine
(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
Symbicort
(Other name for: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate inhalation aerosol)
Symmetrel
(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
Sympt-X
(Other name for: glutamine)
Sympt-X G.I.
(Other name for: glutamine)
synbiotic supplement
A nutritional supplement comprised of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients, with potential immunomodulating and gastrointestinal (GI) flora-restoring activity. Upon ingestion of the synbiotic supplement, the prebiotics and probiotics work synergistically in the GI tract, thereby modulating the GI flora ecosystem and may improve the functions of the intestinal barrier. In addition, synbiotics may have a beneficial effect on the immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Synestrin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Synribo
(Other name for: omacetaxine mepesuccinate)
synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic brain tumor peptides with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)l and antibody responses against glioma tumor cells, resulting in glioma tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-Montanide ISA-51 vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of multiple synthetic breast cancer peptides and the adjuvant tetanus toxoid helper peptide emulsified in the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with immunopotentiation activity. Vaccination with this cancer vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against breast cancer cells. Synthetic breast cancer peptides may stimulate the immune response against cells that produce breast cancer markers such as erbB2 (HER2/neu) while tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC molecules as a nonspecific vaccine helper epitope, resulting in a long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-poly ICLC vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of nine class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted breast cancer associated peptides, the tetanus toxoid helper peptide and the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly ICLC, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The nine peptides derived from six cancer associated proteins are epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and four cancer/testis antigens (CTAs: MAGE-A1, -A3, -A10, and NY-ESO-1). Vaccination with this vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells overexpressing these tumor associated antigens TAAs). As a nonspecific T-helper epitope, tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC and results in long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Poly ICLC, the double-stranded RNA molecules of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly L-lysine in carboxymethylcellulose, binds to TLR3 and induces the release of cytokines which may help boost the immune response against the TAAs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910
A synthetic tumor-associated peptide (TUMAP)-based cancer vaccine directed against colorectal cancer with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910 contains 13 different synthetic tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs), each of which represents a tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific for colorectal cancer. Upon administration, this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against colorectal tumors expressing these TAAs, which may result in a reduction in colorectal tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic glioblastoma mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2
A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of one or two de novo synthesized patient-specific tumor-mutated peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the selected mutated tumor-associated peptides, which results in decreased GB growth. These peptides are specifically selected and synthesized based on the expression of the patient’s own mutated tumor-associated antigens, which were detected during individual tumor genome sequencing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic glioblastoma tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1
A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of five to ten peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the tumor associated peptides, and results in decreased GB growth. The peptides are derived from a glioma actively-personalized vaccine consortium (GAPVAC) warehouse and are specifically selected based on the patient's expression of tumor-associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic hTERT DNA vaccine INO-1400
A DNA vaccine consisting of a plasmid encoding the full-length sequence of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), which is the catalytic subunit of human telomerase and synthesizes telomeric DNA at the chromosome ends, containing two immunogenic mutations, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal vaccination of the hTERT-encoding DNA vaccine INO-1400 in combination with electroporation, hTERT protein is expressed and activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against telomerase-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. Telomerase prolongs the functional lifespan of cells via the restoration and maintenance of telomere length. Abnormally activated in tumorigenesis, telomerase is expressed in the majority of human cancer cells, but its expression is low or non-existent in normal cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic human papillomavirus 16 E6 peptide
A synthetic peptide sequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E6. The E6 oncoprotein is implicated in the tumorigenesis of cervical carcinoma. Vaccination with HPV 16 E6 peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing the E6 oncoprotein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic human secretin
A synthetic human therapeutic agent which is chemically identical or similar to endogenous secretin, a peptide hormone found in the mucosal S-cells of the proximal small intestine. Secretin stimulates the pancreatic acinar cells and ductal epithelial cells to emit bicarbonate rich digestive fluids, thereby increases duodenal bicarbonate level. Bicarbonate neutralizes acidity of the intestines, consequently increasing the pH and facilitating the action of intestinal digestive enzymes. In addition, secretin stimulates the stomach and the liver to produce pepsin and bile, respectively. Both pepsin and bile aide the digestive action of the duodenum, which resulting in the prevention of gastric inflammation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.
synthetic hypericin
A topical ointment formulation containing a synthetic form of hypericin, an anthraquinone derivative that is naturally found in the yellow flower of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), with potential antineoplastic and photosensitizing activities. Upon topical administration of the ointment to the tumor site, hypericin becomes activated through the application of visible fluorescent light. During photoactivation, hypericin generates singlet oxygen, which induces DNA damage, necrosis and apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth. The use of visible light for activation avoids the risk of developing secondary malignancies, which are frequently associated with other photodynamic therapies that are dependent on ultraviolet A exposure. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic long E6 peptide-Toll-like receptor ligand conjugate vaccine ISA201
A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of two highly immunogenic synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are 25-35 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV)-type 16 oncoprotein E6, and conjugated to a proprietary toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand (TLR2-L) immunoadjuvant, with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, the TLR2-L moiety of the synthetic long E6 peptides TLR ligand conjugate vaccine targets and binds to TLRs expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), particularly dendritic cells (DCs). This increases the direct targeting of, binding to, uptake by, and processing of the SLPs into small pieces by the DCs. The processed viral epitopes are presented by DCs, which activate and stimulate the host immune system to mount specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T (Th) cell responses against HPV E6-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased growth of HPV E6-expressing tumor cells. The E6 oncoprotein is implicated in tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. The TLR2-L improves antigen processing and presentation by, and activation of APCs, thereby improving the immunostimulatory effect of the vaccine. The two peptides cover the most immunodominant regions of the HPV16 E6 oncogenic protein and contain both Th and CTL epitopes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01
A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of thirteen synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are 25-35 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins E6 and E7, with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01 is taken up and degraded into small pieces by dendritic cells. The processed viral epitopes are presented by dendritic cells, which may stimulate the host immune system to mount both cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T cell responses against HPV E6/E7-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased tumor growth. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are implicated in the tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. The SLPs allow for optimal presentation by antigen-presenting cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccine
A cancer vaccine containing synthetic epitope peptides derived from melanoma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including melanoma-melanocyte antigen gp100(280-288), melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase(1-9), and melanoma-associated antigen melan-A(27-35). Upon administration, synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against melanoma cells that express TAAs which share epitopes with the vaccine epitope peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent
A synthetic, non-recombinant, pegylated, peptidic erythropoiesis stimulating agent. Synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent binds to and activates the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor on erythroid progenitor cells, thereby inducing their proliferation and differentiation into mature erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of E-PRA and E-PSM, two synthetic peptide analogs of PRAME (PReferential Antigen MElanoma) and PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration into lymph nodes, synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccine may sitmulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor-associated antigens upregulated and expressed on the cell surfaces of certain tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Synthoestrin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Synthroid
(Other name for: levothyroxine sodium)
Synthroid
(Other name for: levothyroxine sodium)
Syntocinon
(Other name for: recombinant oxytocin)

1 comentario:

  1. I had absolutely no symptoms or warnings that I had cancer. In March 2007 I suddenly felt like I had diarrhea but it was all blood and I went to the ER. I bled profusely through the rectum for an hour or so until they got it stopped. The doctor did a colonoscopy and found a stage II cancer, i was devastated when my doctor broke the sad news to me because i thought that was the end for me because i have heard so much news about how cancer have stolen away the lives of patients. With time i developed a 'belly' when all my life my abdomen was flat. I was still in my search for a cure after undergoing chemo and radiation thrice Until a friend of mine directed me to doctor Amber and advised me to try alternative medicine, which i did because then my doctor was no longer helpful at all and i had given up on myself. I got the herbal medicine which was relatively small in size, which i took for 10 weeks. For the past two and half years, I have had two additional colonoscopies and two CT scans, plus blood tests. So far, no recurrence, i am indeed really grafeful to GOD and Dr.Amber who stood by me and made all this happen through his medicine. Never give up hope and if you find yourself in the situation i was some years ago you can also contact him too via his personal email drambermurray@gmail.com

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