Ahead of Print -Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs - Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015
Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) (family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus) was discovered in the United States in May 2013. The virus has now spread nationwide and caused a high number of deaths among suckling pigs (1,2). In regions of the United States to which PEDV is epidemic, a new coronavirus, genetically distinct from PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) (genus Deltacoronavirus), has been simultaneously and frequently detected in diarrheic fecal samples from pigs (3–5).
The clinical role and disease severity of PDCoV in the field is reportedly less than that of PEDV (6). To confirm the role of PDCoV as an enteric viral pathogen and understand disease progression, we studied the pathogenicity of 2 strains of PDCoV (OH-FD22 and OH-FD100) in gnotobiotic pigs. We developed in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining methods to verify the tissue sites of PDCoV replication in infected pigs.
We thank J. Hanson, R. Wood, and J. Ogg for assisting with animal care; Q. Wang for providing advice on qRT-PCR for PDCoV; and X. Wang and M. Lee for providing technical assistance.
Salaries and research support were provided by state and federal funds appropriated to the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Ohio State University. This study was supported by Four Star Animal Health Inc. (Loramie, OH, USA) (L.J.S.) and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center SEEDS Program (grant OAOH1536 to K.J.).
Dr. Jung is a veterinary pathologist at Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio. His research interests include diagnostic molecular pathology and pathogenesis of virus infections and analysis of immune responses to swine enteric viral infections by using germ-free or conventional pig models.
- Cima G. Viral disease affects U.S. pigs: porcine epidemic diarrhea found in at least 11 states. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;243:30–1 .
- Stevenson GW, Hoang H, Schwartz KJ, Burrough ER, Sun D, Madson D, Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25:649–54.
- Marthaler D, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K. Complete genome sequence of strain SDCV/USA/Illinois121/2014, a porcine deltacoronavirus from the United States. Genome Announc. 2014;2:e00218–14.
- Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. Detection and genetic characterization of deltacoronavirus in pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis.2014;20:1227–30.
- Li G, Chen Q, Harmon KM, Yoon KJ, Schwartz KJ, Hoogland MJ, Full-length genome sequence of porcine deltacoronavirus strain USA/IA/2014/8734. Genome Announc. 2014;2:e00278–14.
- USDA to require reports of PED. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014;244:1234 .
- Marthaler D, Raymond L, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K, Rovira A. Rapid detection, complete genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1347–50.
- Jung K, Wang Q, Scheuer KA, Lu Z, Zhang Y, Saif LJ. Pathology of US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain PC21A in gnotobiotic pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:662–5.
- Jung K, Wang Q, Kim Y, Scheuer K, Zhang Z, Shen Q, The effects of simvastatin or interferon-alpha on infectivity of human norovirus using a gnotobiotic pig model for the study of antivirals. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41619.
- Jung K, Ha Y, Chae C. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 infection in pigs. J Comp Pathol. 2005;132:179–84.
- Guo M, Qian Y, Chang KO, Saif LJ. Expression and self-assembly in baculovirus of porcine enteric calicivirus capsids into virus-like particles and their use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection in swine. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1487–93.
- Coussement W, Ducatelle R, Debouck P, Hoorens J. Pathology of experimental CV777 coronavirus enteritis in piglets. I. Histological and histochemical study. Vet Pathol. 1982;19:46–56.
- Opriessnig T, Xiao CT, Gerber PF, Zhang J, Halbur PG. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus RNA present in commercial spray-dried porcine plasma is not infectious to naive pigs. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e104766 .
Suggested citation for this article: Jung K, Hu H, Eyerly B, Lu Z, Chepngeno J, Saif LJ. Pathogenicity of 2 porcine deltacoronavirus strains in gnotobiotic pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141859