Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and its analogues) for tuberous sclerosis complex: a meta-analysis
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases201914:39
© The Author(s). 2019
- Published: 13 February 2019
The treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) using mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors is clinically promising. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors for improving the clinical symptoms of TSC.
We performed a systematic search of major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized studies from the date of database inception to November 2017; the Chinese Food and Drug Administration and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for unpublished studies. The endpoints of the study were the tumor response rate and seizure frequency response rate (the proportion of patients achieving a ≥ 50% reduction relative to the baseline). Two researchers screened articles, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data independently. The included RCTs were analyzed using RevMan 5.3, which was provided by the Cochrane Collaboration.
Compared with the placebo, mTOR inhibitors significantly reduced tumor volume in both angiomyolipoma (AML) (RR = 24.69, 95% CI = 3.51,173.41, P = 0.001) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) (RR = 27.85, 95% CI = 1.74,444.82, P = 0.02). Compared with the placebo, mTOR inhibitors significantly reduced seizure frequency (RR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.41,3.19, P = 0.0003). Regarding safety, compared with patients who did not receive mTOR inhibitors, those who did had a higher risk of suffering stomatitis (RR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.49,6.86, P = 0.003). In contrast, patients who did and did not receive mTOR inhibitors experienced similar adverse events, such as upper respiratory tract infections (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.81,1.45, P = 0.59) and nasopharyngitis (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.60,1.21, P = 0.38).
In view of the efficacy and safety associated with tumor and seizure frequency in the TSC patients, mTOR inhibitors is a good therapeutic choice. Unlike the risks of upper respiratory tract infections and nasopharyngitis, mTOR inhibitors seem to increase the risk of stomatitis, mostly grade 1 and 2.
- mTOR inhibitors
- Tuberous sclerosis complex