Journal of Biomedical Science
Effects of glucosamine against morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance and dependence in mice
Journal of Biomedical Science201926:21
© The Author(s). 2019
- Published: 19 February 2019
The most important limitations of morphine in pain therapy are its tolerance and dependence. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of glucosamine against morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice.
Mice received twice daily morphine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) alone, or along with orally administered glucosamine (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg), for 9 continuous days. To assess antinociceptive effect of morphine, percentage of maximal possible effect (%MPE) of animals exposed to thermal stimulus was measured in the hot plate test, 30 min after morphine administration. Test was performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. The effect of glucosamine on the naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal, was also evaluated. Changes in brain gene expression levels of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), enzyme responsible for nitric oxide generation, as well as pro-inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) were measured in morphine tolerated animals, as well as after withdrawal by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein content of TNF-α was evaluated via ELISA assay.
Tolerance to antinociceptive effect of morphine was developed after 7 days of morphine treatment. The concurrent administration of glucosamine (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) with morphine, significantly inhibited tolerance development, on days 7 and 9. In addition, glucosamine ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal symptoms (tremor, jumping, teeth chattering, grooming). However, diarrhea was significantly improved only with the dose of 500 mg/kg. Increased mRNA expression of iNOS as well as TNF-α mRNA expression and protein, after both morphine tolerance and withdrawal, were considerably reduced by glucosamine (1000 mg/kg) in the morphine withdrawal animals.
These data support the utility of glucosamine in attenuating both tolerance to nociceptive effects of morphine as well as withdrawal-induced behavioral profile. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are responsible, at least in part, for the protective effects of this drug.