PLoS One. 2018 Jul 24;13(7):e0201086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201086. eCollection 2018.
BRCA1 founder mutations and beyond in the Polish population: A single-institution BRCA1/2 next-generation sequencing study.
Kowalik A1, Siołek M2, Kopczyński J3, Krawiec K1, Kalisz J1, Zięba S1, Kozak-Klonowska B2, Wypiórkiewicz E1, Furmańczyk J1, Nowak-Ozimek E1, Chłopek M1, Macek P4, Smok-Kalwat J5, Góźdź S5,6.
Hereditary mutations in BRCA1/2 genes increase the risk of breast cancer by 60-80% and ovarian cancer by about 20-40% in female carriers. Detection of inherited mutations in asymptomatic carriers allows for the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. BRCA1/2 genotyping is also important for poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor administration. This work addresses the need for next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for the detection of BRCA1/2 mutations in Poland where until recently mostly founder mutations have been tested, and whether BRCA diagnostics should be extended beyond the panel of founder mutations in this population. The study comprises 2931 patients who were referred for genetic counseling and tested for founder and recurrent mutations in BRCA1 (5382insC (c.5266dupC; p.Gln1756Profs), c.5370C>T (c.5251C>T; p.R1751*), 300T>G (c.181T>G; p.Cys61Gly), 185delAG (c.68_69delAG; p.Glu23Valfs), and 4153delA (c.4035delA; p.Glu1346Lysfs)) by high-resolution melting/Sanger sequencing. A total of 103 (3.5%) mutations were detected, including 53 (51%) in healthy subjects and 50 (49%) in cancer patients. Then, based on more stringent clinical and pedigree criteria, sequencing of all BRCA1/2 exons was performed in 454 (16%) patients without founder mutations by NGS, which detected 58 mutations (12.8%), 40 (8.8%) of which were pathogenic. In 14 (3.1%) subjects, variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected, and in four (0.9%) subjects, the detected mutations were benign. In total, 161 mutations were detected using our two-step algorithm (founder test and NGS), of which 64% were founder mutations, 25% were NGS-detected pathogenic mutations, 9% were VUS, and 2% were benign. In addition, 38 mutations not yet reported in the Polish population were detected. In total, founder mutations accounted for only 64% of all detected mutations, and the remaining mutations (36%) were dispersed across the BRCA1/2 gene sequences. Thus, in Poland, testing for constitutional mutations in BRCA1/2 should be carried out in two stages, where NGS is performed in qualifying subjects if founder mutations are not identified.
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