A new evidence-based publication from AHRQ can help clinicians make informed decisions about managing renal masses and localized renal cell carcinoma – a kidney cancer that affects approximately 65,000 new patients each year. Management of Renal Masses and Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma: Current State of the Evidencesummarizes findings of a systematic review that evaluated the benefits and adverse effects of screening and treating patients with a renal mass that potentially could be localized renal cell carcinoma. Evidence indicates there is no clear method for predicting kidney cancer during diagnosis of renal masses. Tumor size and male gender, however, are highly associated with malignancy. In addition, evidence does not support one management strategy over another; treatment decision-making may be affected by patient factors such as comorbidities, life expectancy, tumor characteristics (e.g., size and location) and patient values and preferences.