Int J Cancer. 2019 Jan 29. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32160. [Epub ahead of print]
Lynch-like syndrome is as frequent as Lynch syndrome in early-onset non-familial non-polyposis colorectal cancer.
Antelo M1,2, Golubicki M3, Roca E3, Mendez G3, Carballido M3, Iseas S3, Cuatrecasas M4, Moreira L4, Sanchez A4, Carballal S4, Castells A4, Boland CR5, Goel A6, Balaguer F4.
Early-onset (<50 years-old) non-polyposis non-familial colorectal cancer (EO NP NF CRC) is a common clinical challenge. Although Lynch syndrome (LS) is associated with EO CRC, the frequency of this syndrome in the EO NF cases remains unknown. Besides, mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) CRCs with negative MMR gene testing have recently been described in up to 60% of cases and termed "Lynch-like syndrome" (LLS). Management and counseling decisions of these patients are complicated because of unconfirmed suspicions of hereditary cancer. To define the prevalence of MMR deficient CRCs, LS and LLS in patients with EO NP NF CRC, we recruited 102 patients with a first diagnosis of NP NF CRC<50 years old during 2003-2009 who underwent genetic counseling at our institution in Argentina. Tumor immunohistochemical (IHC) MMR for protein expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were evaluated, and in those with loss of MLH1 expression by IHC, somatic BRAF V600E mutation and both somatic and germline MLH1 methylation levels were studied. Tumors characterized as MMRd without somatic BRAF mutation nor MLH1 methylation were sent for germline analysis. Twenty one (20.6%) tumors were MMRd. Fourteen of 16 putative LS cases underwent germline testing: 6 pathogenic mutations were identified and 8 cases had no identifiable pathogenic mutations. The prevalence of LS and LLS in this cohort was 5.8% (6/102) and 7.8% (8/102), respectively. As a conclusion we found that 20% of patients with EO NP NF CRC have MMRd tumors, and at least half of these are likely to have LLS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Colorectal Cancer; Early-onset; Gastroenterology; Genetics; Lynch syndrome; Lynch-like syndrome