Biomed Res. 2018;39(3):159-167. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.39.159.
Tumor mutational burden analysis of 2,000 Japanese cancer genomes using whole exome and targeted gene panel sequencing.
Hatakeyama K1, Nagashima T2,3, Urakami K2, Ohshima K1, Serizawa M4, Ohnami S2, Shimoda Y2,3, Ohnami S2, Maruyama K5, Naruoka A4, Akiyama Y6, Kusuhara M4,7, Mochizuki T1, Yamaguchi K8.
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging characteristic in cancer and has been associated with microsatellite instability, defective DNA replication/repair, and response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy. When estimating TMB, targeted panel sequencing is performed using a few hundred genes; however, a comparison of TMB results obtained with this platform and with whole exome sequencing (WES) has not been performed for various cancer types. In the present study, we compared TMB results using the above two platforms in 2,908 solid tumors that were obtained from Japanese patients. For next-generation sequencing, we used fresh-frozen tissue specimens. The Ion Proton System was employed to detect somatic mutations in the coding genome and to sequence an available cancer panel that targeted 409 genes. We then selected 2,040 samples with sufficient tumor cellularity for TMB analysis. In tumors with TMB-high (TMB ≥ 20 mutations/Mb), TMB derived from WES correlated well with the estimated TMB (eTMB) based on panel sequencing, whereas TMB in the remaining tumors showed a weak correlation. In particular, eTMB was overestimated in tumors with low-frequency mutations, resulting in the accumulation of EGFR mutations not being discriminated as a feature of lung cancer with low-frequency mutations. The eTMB in tumors harboring POLE mutations and microsatellite instability was not overestimated, suggesting that panel sequencing could accurately estimate TMB in tumors with high-frequency mutations such as hypermutator tumors. These results may provide helpful information for interpreting TMB results based on clinical sequencing using a targeted gene panel.
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