Breast Care (Basel). 2018 Apr;13(2):109-114. doi: 10.1159/000488995. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
Modifiable Lifestyle Factors: Opportunities for (Hereditary) Breast Cancer Prevention - a Narrative Review.
Increasing rates of obesity, lack of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and frequent alcohol consumption are major lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer. In fact, it has been estimated that about one-third of breast cancer cases are attributable to factors women can change. Most research has focused on examining the impact of one single exposure on breast cancer risk while adjusting for other risk modifiers. Capitalizing on big data, major efforts have been made to evaluate the combined impact of well-established lifestyle factors on overall breast cancer risk. At the individual level, data indicate that even simple behavior modifications could have a considerable impact on breast cancer prevention. Moreover, there is emerging new evidence that adopting a healthy lifestyle may be particularly relevant for women with hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer. On the absolute risk scale, studies suggest that the presence of certain risk factors, such as excessive body weight, had a substantially higher impact on breast cancer risk if women had a hereditary predisposition to cancer. The existing body of knowledge gives the medical professionals guidance as to which factors to focus on when counseling patients. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials utilizing objective methods are crucial to providing concrete recommendations.
BRCA1 / BRCA2 mutations; Breast cancer; Epidemiology; Health behavior; Hereditary breast cancer; Lifestyle; Nutrition; Obesity; Physical activity; Prevention