Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years of age. It is found when the tumor begins to grow and cause signs or symptoms. Sometimes it forms before birth and is found during a fetalultrasound.
Neuroblastoma is sometimes caused by a gene mutation (change) passed from the parent to the child.
The genemutation that increases the risk of neuroblastoma is sometimes inherited (passed from the parent to the child). In patients with this gene mutation, neuroblastoma usually occurs at a younger age and more than one tumor may form in the adrenal medulla.
Signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma include bone pain and a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
The most common signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma are caused by the tumor pressing on nearby tissues as it grows or by cancer spreading to the bone. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by neuroblastoma or by other conditions.
Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:
Lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
Dark circles around the eyes ("black eyes").
Swollen stomach and trouble breathing (in infants).
Painless, bluish lumps under the skin (in infants).
Weakness or paralysis (loss of ability to move a body part).
Less common signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma include the following:
Tests that examine many different body tissues and fluids are used to detect (find) and diagnose neuroblastoma.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro exam or a neurologic exam.
Urinecatecholamine studies: A procedure in which a urine sample is checked to measure the amount of certain substances, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), that are made when catecholamines break down and are released into the urine. A higher than normal amount of VMA or HVA can be a sign of neuroblastoma.
Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.
Hormone test: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amount of hormones released into the blood by the adrenal medulla. A higher than normal amount of the hormones dopamine and norepinephrine may be a sign of neuroblastoma.
X-ray: An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with gadolinium: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A substance called gadolinium is injected into a vein. The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
A biopsy is done to diagnose neuroblastoma.
Cells and tissues are removed during a biopsy so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The way the biopsy is done depends on where the tumor is in the body. Sometimes the whole tumor is removed at the same time the biopsy is done.
The following tests may be done on the tissue that is removed:
Light and electron microscopy: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under regular and high-powered microscopes to look for certain changes in the cells.
Immunohistochemistry: A test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test may be used to tell the difference between different types of cancer.
MYC-N amplification study: A laboratory study in which tumor or bone marrow cells are checked for the level of MYC-N. MYC-N is important for cell growth. A higher level ofMYC-N (more than 10 copies of the gene) is called MYC-N amplification. Neuroblastoma with MYC-N amplification is more likely to spread in the body and less likely to respond to treatment.
Children who are 6 months old or younger may not need a biopsy or surgery to remove the tumor because the tumor may disappear without treatment.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
Prognosis and treatment options for neuroblastoma are also affected by tumor biology, which includes:
The patterns of the tumor cells.
How different the tumor cells are from normal cells.
How fast the tumor cells are growing.
Whether the tumor shows MYC-N amplification.
The tumor biology is said to be favorable or unfavorable, depending on these factors. A favorable tumor biology means there is a better chance of recovery.
In some children who are 6 months old and younger, neuroblastoma may disappear without treatment. The child is closely watched for signs or symptoms of neuroblastoma. If signs or symptoms occur, treatment may be needed.
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