miércoles, 13 de julio de 2016

Health.mil - Predicting contagiousness to limit the spread of disease

Health.mil - Predicting contagiousness to limit the spread of disease


Predicting contagiousness to limit the spread of disease

Following exposure to a pathogen, people may become infected, and soon after they may begin to spread disease to others. Some people become infected and also become sick with symptoms (red). Some people become infected and do not exhibit symptoms, but still spread disease (yellow). Some people do not become infected (blue).

Following exposure to a pathogen, people may become infected, and soon after they may begin to spread disease to others. Some people become infected and also become sick with symptoms (red). Some people become infected and do not exhibit symptoms, but still spread disease (yellow). Some people do not become infected (blue). Prometheus aims to develop tests to predict if people will spread disease, whether or not they show symptoms. (DARPA graphic)

IMagine the workplace during flu season. Some people get sick and display clear symptoms—a warning sign to coworkers to avoid contact and for that individual to stay home. Others are infected, but never or only belatedly exhibit the tell-tale signs of sickness, meaning they can infect coworkers without knowing it. If healthcare professionals had the ability to test in advance whether a person is likely to spread a disease following infection, they could recommend specific measures to treat the person or limit exposure and perhaps keep an outbreak from growing into an epidemic or pandemic. 
DARPA’s new Prometheus program is setting out to develop that predictive capability. Prometheus seeks to discover a minimal set of molecular biomarkers that would indicate, less than 24 hours after exposure to a pathogen, whether an individual will become contagious. That window is narrow enough to allow for early treatment or the initiation of other mitigating steps before a person begins infecting others. 
“Many infections are spread by people who haven’t yet displayed symptoms of their illness,” said Army Col. Matt Hepburn, the Prometheus program manager. “These people don’t know they are sick, so they often end up spreading the disease to close contacts. Our goal with Prometheus is to develop techniques that could alert people that they are likely to become contagious, so they can proactively take steps to keep the disease from spreading.” 
Prometheus will focus on acute respiratory infections. As part of that effort, researchers on the program will set out to develop a fundamental understanding of the biological responses occurring in a recently infected person. 
In particular, Prometheus will characterize the body’s molecular-level immune responses at multiple time points during the infection process. These “biomarkers”—measurable indicators of the severity or presence of some disease state—might help researchers predict the onset of contagiousness. Within hours after exposure to a pathogen, for example, a number of genes inside immune-system cells become active. Other biomarkers may be predictive of viral replication, well before there is a measurable increase in the amount of virus in the body. Among the many other biomarkers potentially useful for assessing infection status and likelihood of disease transmission are messenger RNA, certain genetic variations in the infected person’s DNA, and immune-system proteins. 
Enabling a prognosis of individuals’ likelihood of spreading a disease would not only help mitigate an outbreak and speed treatment of affected individuals, but also would help researchers forecast the spread of the disease. Current models of outbreaks rely heavily on reported cases, which are generated after symptomatic patients visit a healthcare provider and receive a diagnosis. Patients who only exhibit mild symptoms may never seek medical care, yet may still be capable of spreading infection. 
“Forecasts based on clinical diagnostics aren’t ideal because they’re based on incomplete and essentially historical information,” Hepburn said. “Identifying contagious or potentially contagious individuals early is a critical capability for outbreak mitigation – especially in relatively well-defined communities such as aboard a large ship or on a military base. If researchers can characterize the pre-symptomatic population, they stand a much better chance of building successful models of disease transmission and developing effective medical and public health interventions.” 
Disclaimer: Re-published content may have been edited for length and clarity. Read original post.

Army researchers, Sanofi Pasteur to co-develop Zika virus vaccine

A digitally-colorized transmission electron micrograph of Zika virus, which is a member of the family Flaviviridae. Virus particles, here colored blue, are 40 nanometers in diameter with an outer envelope and an inner dense core.
A recently signed cooperative research and development agreement will allow the transfer of the Zika purified inactivated virus, or ZPIV, technology to Sanofi to explore advanced and larger-scale manufacturing and production
Related Topics: Research and Innovation | Pandemic Diseases | Immunization Healthcare | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses | Zika Virus | Public Health

Paratrooper medics use new oxygen equipment

Army Sgt. Thomas Wachter, a Paratrooper with the 82nd Airborne Division demonstrates new oxygen generation equipment to employees from the United States Army Medical Material Agency during a joint training exercise at Fort Bragg.
U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency sent experts out into the field to get innovative ideas
Related Topics: Health Readiness | Innovation

GMU researchers developing system to help ensure blood safety

The Armed Services Blood Bank Center at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Md., received a new state-of-the-art blood mobile May 5.
Researchers at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va., are developing an automated validation and verification system to help ensure blood safety.
Related Topics: Armed Services Blood Program | Health IT Research and Innovation Strategy | Innovation

Incoming DHA Research and Development director brings new perspective

Rear Adm. Colin Chinn, director of Research, Development & Acquisition, for the Defense Health Agency
Meet Navy Rear Adm. Colin Chinn as the director of Research, Development & Acquisition (RDA), for the Defense Health Agency.
Related Topics: Research and Innovation | Innovation

Latest Army medical innovation to keep soldiers ready for the fight

Soldiers break down a portion of a Deployable Rapid Assembly Shelter during an exercise in Japan. A new tool is helping medical personnel make sure soldiers are ready to deploy long before they arrive at any processing lines. (Photo by Army Staff Sgt. Chanelcherie DeMello)
During Innovation Month, we take a look at a new tool the Army is using to make sure soldiers are good to go, long before they hit that deployment line.
Related Topics: Innovation | Health Readiness

Advances in health information technology and Internet of Things changing health care delivery

Army Lt. Col. Mark Mellott, branch chief of the Defense Health Agency’s Health Information Technology Innovation and Advanced Technology Development Division, sees the Internet of Things as ‘the perfect storm’ when it comes to changing knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding how healthcare is administered to beneficiaries.
Last summer, Army Lt. Col. Mark Mellott discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to change the dynamic of health care. In many ways that potential has now become a reality.
Related Topics: Health Readiness | Technology | Health IT Research and Innovation Strategy | Innovation

Department of Defense Serum Repository

infographic about the DoD Serum Repository
The Department of Defense Serum Repository is a longitudinal serum repository that serves as a cental archive of sera drawn from Service members for medical surveillance purposes.
Related Topics: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | DoD Serum Repository | Innovation

Army partners with MIT Lincoln Lab on voice analysis program to detect brain injury

Service members are at higher risk for TBI because their jobs are physically demanding and potentially dangerous, both in combat and training environments. However, not all blows or jolts to the head result in TBI. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Paige Behringer)
Researchers with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory are developing a computer algorithm to identify vocal indicators that could help diagnose mild traumatic brain injury or concussion
Related Topics: Traumatic Brain Injury | Innovation

USAF Hospital Langley: First active duty hospital with 3-D laparoscopic capability

U.S. Air Force Capt. Stuart Winkler, left, 633rd Medical Operations Squadron obstetrician, uses a 3-D scope and glasses while performing a hysterectomy at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. The 3-D technology is new in the operating rooms at Langley which gives surgeons accuracy, speed and precision during surgical tasks. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Ciara Gosier)
USAF Hospital Langley is the first active duty military hospital in the U.S. to have a 3-D laparoscopic camera
Related Topics: Military Hospitals and Clinics | Innovation

Pathogen reduction technology funding approved, ASBP on the forefront of deployment

The Armed Services Blood Bank Center at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Md., received a new state-of-the-art blood mobile May 5.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has agreed to provide more than $48 million to fund pathogen reduction technologies
Related Topics: Armed Services Blood Program | Zika Virus | Innovation

U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research looking for eye injury treatment

Army Capt. Elaine Por, a principle investigator and deputy task area manager in the Ocular Trauma Division at the USAISR, is looking for a novel way to treat eye injuries that can result in blindness.
A non-invasive treatment could be available to Wounded Warriors with eye injuries within the next two to three years
Related Topics: Conditions and Treatments | Quality and Safety of Health Care | Research and Innovation | Vision Loss

Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

Related Topics: Research and Innovation

Scientists probe Traumatic Brain Injury effects at research lab

Sensors attached to a translucent model skull are used to measure explosive shock velocity and pressure at the Army Research Laboratory Weapons and Materials Research Directorate at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Aberdeen, Maryland. Data captured by the sensors are used to assist studies in traumatic brain injuries. (DoD photo by EJ Hersom)
The Army Research Laboratory’s specialized experiments offer repeatable parameters to attain more reliable data and to complement strides made by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the medical and academic communities
Related Topics: Traumatic Brain Injury | Research and Innovation | Medical Research and Development | Innovation | Technology

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch funds studies on Zika virus

A mosquito habitat managed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand.
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch is allocating funding to several Department of Defense laboratories in the United States and overseas to conduct additional research and surveillance on the Zika virus.
Related Topics: Research and Innovation | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Zika Virus | Biological Surveillance Tools | Public Health | Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

Health IT City Plan

This HIT City Plan provides an understanding of the potential interface between the HIT Directorate and DHA enterprises, decomposing the relevant parts of the enterprises into functional segments.
Related Topics: Technology | Health IT Research and Innovation | Addressing Near-Term Needs through Advanced Technology Research | Health IT Challenge | Leaning Forward with Innovative Health Technologies | Leveraging Open Source Technologies | Transitioning to a Net-Centric, Service-Oriented Enterprise | Research and Innovation | Health IT Research and Innovation Strategy

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