Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010 - Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010
Human infections and deaths caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses in several countries (1); by A(H9N2) virus in Bangladesh (2); and by A(H7N2), A(H7N9), A(H9N2), and A(H10N8) viruses in China (3–5) reflect the persistent public health threat posed by different avian influenza A virus subtypes. Subtype H5N1 virus remains endemic among poultry in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Indonesia, and Vietnam (6). Among these countries the first human cases of H5N1 virus were identified in China and Vietnam during 2003 (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies against H5N1 virus among poultry workers was 0%–4% in Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam during 2001–2009 (7–13); published data on seroprevalence among poultry workers in Egypt are not available. Beyond the countries where H5N1 is endemic, 0%–10% seroprevalence has been reported among poultry workers in Nigeria; South Korea; Thailand; and Hong Kong, China (14–17). The incidence of H5N1 virus infection among occupationally exposed populations has not been determined in countries where the virus is endemic or nonendemic.
In Bangladesh, a country with a population density of 964/km2 and 257 million poultry (18,19), H5N1 virus infection was first detected among poultry in 2007. By the end of 2013, the country had reported 549 outbreaks among poultry to the World Organisation for Animal Health (20). The first human case of H5N1 virus infection in Bangladesh was identified during 2008 (21). Live bird markets (LBMs) are often associated with poultry-to-human transmission of H5N1 virus (22). For example, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were associated with detection of H5 antibody among LBM workers in Hong Kong (17). In one study, workers from 16 LBMs in Bangladesh were rarely observed using personal protective equipment (PPE) or washing their hands during the handling of poultry, suggesting a high likelihood of exposures to H5N1 virus (23). Data are limited on the risk for avian influenza A virus infections among poultry workers in Bangladesh (7).
Seroprevalence studies among humans yield information about how many persons have serologic evidence of infection at a certain point and time, but they do not provide information about when people became infected or the risk for infection with prolonged exposures to contaminated animals or environments. Studies designed to estimate the rate of seroconversion of antibodies to H5N1 virus among poultry workers may also help elucidate the risks of poultry-to-human transmission of H5N1 virus in countries, such as Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus is endemic among poultry. Such information may help public health officials develop, prioritize, and reinforce prevention and control strategies. During 2009–2010, a total of 61 H5N1 outbreaks, resulting in the culling of 220,432 birds, were reported among poultry in Bangladesh (24); no human cases were identified during this period. We followed a cohort of LBM workers in Bangladesh to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to H5N1 virus, the incidence of seroconversion, and risk factors for poultry-to-human transmission of H5N1 virus.
Dr. Nasreen works on respiratory infection research at the Centre for Communicable Diseases, icddr,b. Her research area of interest is infectious disease epidemiology, including prevention and control in low-income countries.
We thank the field staff and all study participants for their contribution to the study. We also acknowledge the contribution of Yaohui Bai for technical assistance and Dorothy Southern for providing support with the scientific writing and clarity of this manuscript. icddr,b acknowledges with gratitude the commitment of CDC to its research efforts.
This research study was funded by the CDC through their cooperative agreement with icddr,b (grant no. 1-U01-CI000298). icddr,b is thankful to the governments of Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom for providing core/unrestricted support.
- World Health Organization. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases for avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO, 2003–2014 [cited 2014 Dec 7]. http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/EN_GIP_20131008CumulativeNumberH5N1cases.pdf
- icddr,b. Outbreak of mild respiratory disease caused by H5N1 and H9N2 infections among young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2011. Health and Science Bulletin. 2011;9:5–12.
- World Health Organization. WHO risk assessment. Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. 2014 Feb 28 [cited 2014 Mar 1].http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/influenza_h7n9/140225_H7N9RA_for_web_20140306FM.pdf?ua=1
- World Health Organization. Influenza at the human-animal interface. Summary and assessment as of 24 January 2014 [cited 2014 Feb 20].http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/Influenza_Summary_IRA_HA_interface_24January14.pdf?ua=1
- World Health Organization. Avian influenza A (H10N8). World Health Organization (WHO), Western Pacific Region [cited 2014 Feb 20].http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/factsheets/h10n8/en/
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Health Organization. FAO-OIE-WHO technical update: current evolution of avian influenza H5N1 viruses [cited 2014 Dec 27].http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/tripartite_notes_H5N1.pdf
- Nasreen S, Uddin Khan S, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Hancock K, Veguilla V, Wang D, Seroprevalence of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers in Bangladesh, 2009. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73200. DOIPubMed
- Lu CY, Lu JH, Chen WQ, Jiang LF, Tan BY, Ling WH, Potential infections of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza do exist in Guangdong populations of China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:2050–3 .PubMed
- Wang M, Fu C-X, Zheng B-J. Antibodies against H5 and H9 avian influenza among poultry workers in China. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2583–4.DOIPubMed
- Huo X, Zu R, Qi X, Qin Y, Li L, Tang F, Seroprevalence of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers in Jiangsu Province, China: an observational study. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:93. DOIPubMed
- Santhia K, Ramy A, Jayaningsih P, Samaan G, Putra AAG, Dibia N, Avian influenza A H5N1 infections in Bali Province, Indonesia: a behavioral, virological and seroepidemiological study. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2009;3:81–9.
- Schultsz C, Dung NV, Hai LT, Ha DQ, Peiris JSM, Lim W, Prevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among cullers and poultry workers in Ho Chi Minh City, 2005. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7948. DOIPubMed
- Uyeki TM, Nguyen DC, Rowe T, Lu X, Hu-Primmer J, Huynh LP, Seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza A (H5) and A (H9) viruses among market poultry workers, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2001. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43948 . DOIPubMed
- Ortiz JR, Katz MA, Mahmoud MN, Ahmed S, Bawa SI, Farnon EC, Lack of evidence of avian-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers, Kano, Nigeria, 2006. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1685–91. DOIPubMed
- Kwon D, Lee J-Y, Choi W, Choi J-H, Chung Y-S, Lee N-J, Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus antibodies in poultry cullers, South Korea, 2003–2004.Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:986–8.PubMed
- Hinjoy S, Puthavathana P, Laosiritaworn Y, Limpakarnjanarat K, Pooruk P, Chuxnum T, Low frequency of infection with avian influenza virus (H5N1) among poultry farmers, Thailand, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:499–501. DOIPubMed
- Bridges CB, Lim W, Hu-Primmer J, Sims L, Fukuda K, Mak KH, Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997–1998.J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1005–10. DOIPubMed
- Directorate General of Health Services Bangladesh. 2nd National Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan, Bangladesh, 2009–2011 [cited 2010 Feb 12]. http://oldweb.dghs.gov.bd/bn/important-documents-software/category/7-2012-07-09-07-43-26?download=6:2nd-national-avian-and-pandemic-influenza-preparedness-and-response-plan-bangladesh
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2011 Population and housing census: preliminary results 2011 [cited 2011 Dec 20].http://www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/BBS/PHC2011Preliminary%20Result.pdf
- World Organization for Animal Health. Update on highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals (type H5 and H7): Follow-up report no. 43 (final report) [cited 2013 Jun 27]. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public%5C.%5Ctemp%5Creports/en_fup_0000014568_20131223_145541.pdf
- Brooks WA, Alamgir ASM, Sultana R, Islam MS, Rahman M, Fry A, Avian influenza virus A (H5N1), detected through routine surveillance, in child, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1311–3. DOIPubMed
- Wan X-F, Dong L, Lan Y, Long L-P, Xu C, Zou S, Indications that live poultry markets are a major source of human H5N1 influenza virus infection in China. J Virol. 2011;85:13432–8. DOIPubMed
- Bangladesh UNICEF. icddr,b. Evaluation of avian influenza communication for development initiative—improving biosecurity in live bird markets. Pre-intervention assessment report. Dhaka (Bangladesh): United Nations Children Fund; 2013.
- World Organization for Animal Health. Update on highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals (type H5 and H7) [cited 2013 Jan 5].http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/update-on-avian-influenza/2004/
- Khan SU, Rahman M, Gurley ES, Mikolon A, Rahman MZ, Hossain MJ, Live bird market environmental sampling: an efficient tool for poultry influenza surveillance. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85(Suppl 6):285 .PubMed
- icddr,b. Avian influenza virus surveillance at live bird markets in Bangladesh, 2007–2012. Health and Science Bulletin. 2013;11:8–16.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for influenza A(H1N1) [cited 2012 Feb 12].http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/CDCRealtimeRTPCR_SwineH1Assay-2009_20090430.pdf
- Rowe T, Abernathy RA, Hu-Primmer J, Thompson WW, Lu X, Lim W, Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:937–43 .PubMed
- World Health Organization. Serological diagnosis of influenza by microneutralization assay [cited 2011 Jan 18].http://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/2010_12_06_serological_diagnosis_of_influenza_by_microneutralization_assay.pdf
- Stephenson I, Wood JM, Nicholson KG, Charlett A, Zambon MC. Detection of anti-H5 responses in human sera by HI using horse erythrocytes following MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 vaccine. Virus Res. 2004;103:91–5. DOIPubMed
- Kaiser H. A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika. 1970;35:401–15. DOI
- Bursac Z, Gauss CH, Williams DK, Hosmer DW. Purposeful selection of variables in logistic regression. Source Code Biol Med. 2008;3:17.DOIPubMed
- Wooldridge JM. Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. 2nd ed. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 2010.
- Buchy P, Vong S, Chu S, Garcia J-M, Hien TT, Hien VM, Kinetics of neutralizing antibodies in patients naturally infected by H5N1 virus. PLoS ONE.2010;5:e10864. DOIPubMed
- Park AW, Glass K. Dynamic patterns of avian and human influenza in East and Southeast Asia. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:543–8 and. DOIPubMed
- Wang M, Di B, Zhou D-H, Zheng B-J, Jing H, Lin Y-P, Food markets with live birds as source of avian influenza. Emerg Infect Dis.2006;12:1773–5.PubMed
- World Health Organization. Protection of individuals with high poultry contact in areas affected by avian influenza H5N1: consolidation of pre-existing guidance [cited 2008 Mar 15]. http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/guidance_protection_h5n1_02_2008/en/
- Rimi NA, Sultana R, Khan S, Nasreen S, Puri A, Alamgir ASM, Biosecurity conditions and biosafety practices in the live bird markets of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, 2012. In: Abstracts of the Options for the Control of Influenza VIII; Cape Town, South Africa; 2013 Sep 5–10. Abstract P2-475. London: International Society for Influenza and Other Respiratory Virus Diseases; 2013.
- icddr,b. The first fatal human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus detected in Bangladesh. Health and Science Bulletin.2013;11:1–6.
- Uyeki TM, Bresee JS. Detecting human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1969–71. DOIPubMed
Suggested citation for this article: Nasreen S, Khan SU, Luby SP, Gurley ES, Abedin J, Zaman RU, et al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among workers at live bird markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr [date cited].http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141281
No hay comentarios:
Publicar un comentario