ESC Heart Fail. 2019 Feb 18. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12420. [Epub ahead of print]
Genetic basis and outcome in a nationwide study of Finnish patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Jääskeläinen P1,2, Vangipurapu J3, Raivo J3, Kuulasmaa T3, Heliö T4, Aalto-Setälä K5, Kaartinen M6, Ilveskoski E7, Vanninen S7, Hämäläinen L8, Melin J9, Kokkonen J9, Nieminen MS4; FinHCM Study Group, Laakso M2, Kuusisto J2.
Nationwide large-scale genetic and outcome studies in cohorts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have not been previously published.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We sequenced 59 cardiomyopathy-associated genes in 382 unrelated Finnish patients with HCM and found 24 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in six genes in 38.2% of patients. Most mutations were located in sarcomere genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TPM1, and MYL2). Previously reported mutations by our study group (MYBPC3-Gln1061Ter, MYH7-Arg1053Gln, and TPM1-Asp175Asn) and a fourth major mutation MYH7-Val606Met accounted for 28.0% of cases. Mutations in GLA and PRKAG2 were found in three patients. Furthermore, we found 49 variants of unknown significance in 31 genes in 20.4% of cases. During a 6.7 ± 4.2 year follow-up, annual all-cause mortality in 482 index patients and their relatives with HCM was higher than that in the matched Finnish population (1.70 vs. 0.87%; P < 0.001). Sudden cardiac deaths were rare (n = 8). Systolic heart failure (hazard ratio 17.256, 95% confidence interval 3.266-91.170, P = 0.001) and maximal left ventricular wall thickness (hazard ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interval 1.098-1.363, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of HCM-related mortality and life-threatening cardiac events. The patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation more often than patients without a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation (12.9 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001), but there was no difference in all-cause or HCM-related mortality between the two groups. Mortality due to HCM during 10 year follow-up among the 5.2 million population of Finland was studied from death certificates of the National Registry, showing 269 HCM-related deaths, of which 32% were sudden.
We identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations in 38% of Finnish patients with HCM. Four major sarcomere mutations accounted for 28% of HCM cases, whereas HCM-related mutations in non-sarcomeric genes were rare. Mortality in patients with HCM exceeded that of the general population. Finally, among 5.2 million Finns, there were at least 27 HCM-related deaths annually.
© 2019 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
Genetics; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Mortality; Mutation; Outcome; Targeted sequencing