Cancer Discov. 2018 Nov 15. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0150. [Epub ahead of print]
The Clinical Impact of the Genomic Landscape of Mismatch Repair-Deficient Cancers.
The mismatch repair (MMR) system which detects and corrects base mismatches and insertions and deletions that occur during DNA synthesis is deregulated in approximately 20% of human cancers. MMR-deficient tumors have peculiar properties, including early-onset metastatic potential but generally favorable prognosis, and remarkable response to immune therapy. The functional basis of these atypical clinical features has recently started to be elucidated. Here, we discuss how the biological and clinical features of MMR-deficient tumors might be traced back to their ability to continuously produce new somatic mutations, leading to increased levels of neoantigens, which in turn stimulate immune surveillance.Significance: Tumors carrying defects in DNA MMR accumulate high levels of mutations, a feature linked to rapid tumor progression and acquisition of drug resistance but also favorable prognosis and response to immune-checkpoint blockade. We discuss how the genomic landscape of MMR-deficient tumors affects their biological and clinical behaviors. Cancer Discov; 8(12); 1-11.©2018 AACR.