jueves, 19 de marzo de 2015

Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil - Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC


Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil - Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015


Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil

Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Rafael Kroon Campos, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Paulo César Peregrino Ferreira, and Erna Geessien KroonComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil


In 2010, a vaccinia virus isolate caused an atypically severe outbreak that affected humans and cattle in Brazil. Of 26 rural workers affected, 12 were hospitalized. Our data raise questions about the risk factors related to the increasing number and severity of vaccinia virus infections.
After the World Health Organization declared in 1980 that smallpox had been eradicated, smallpox vaccination was suspended (1). This fact led to the emergence of a generation of humans that is susceptible to infection by zoonotic viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes cowpox virus in Europe; monkeypox virus, which occurs naturally in Africa and of which 1 introduction was event reported in the United States; and vaccinia virus (VACV) in Asia and South America (25).
Especially during the past decade, orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections have increased worldwide, and the immunologic status of the population against OPV is a major risk factor for its reemergence (6). We describe an outbreak of atypically severe VACV infection in which 12 rural workers in Brazil, who were not vaccinated against smallpox, were hospitalized because of systemic clinical manifestations.

Dr. Abrahão is a biologist and professor of virology at the Laboratório de Vírus, Microbiology Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. His research interests focus on monitoring and preventing emerging infectious diseases.


We thank all of our colleagues from Laboratório de Vírus, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, for their technical support.
Financial support was provided by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Pro-Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PRPq-UFMG), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA). E.G.K., P.P.F., C.A.B., G.S.T., and F.G.F. are CNPq researchers.


  1. Damon IK. Poxviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, et al., editors. Fields virology. Vol II. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007. p. 2947–75.
  2. Reynolds MGCarroll DSKarem KL. Factors affecting the likelihood of monkeypox’s emergence and spread in the post-smallpox era. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:335–43. PubMed
  3. Ducournau CFerrier-Rembert AFerraris OJoffre AFavier ALFlusin OConcomitant human infections with 2 cowpox virus strains in related cases, France, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis2013;19:19969 . DOIPubMed
  4. Kroon EGMota BEF, Abrahão JS, Fonseca FG, Trindade GS. Zoonotic Brazilian vaccinia virus: from field to therapy. Antiviral Res2011;92:15063 .DOIPubMed
  5. Singh RKHosamani MBalamurugan VBhanuprakash VRasool TJYadav MPBuffalopox: an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis. Anim Health Res Rev2007;8:10514 . DOIPubMed
  6. Shchelkunov SNAn increasing danger of zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections. PLoS Pathog2013;9:e1003756DOIPubMed
  7. Abrahão JS. Silva-Fernandes AT, Lima LS, Campos RK, Guedes MI, Cota MM, et al. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis2010;16:9769DOIPubMed
  8. Abrahão JSLima LSAssis FLAlves PASilva-Fernandes ATCota MMNested-multiplex PCR detection of orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus directly from exanthematic clinical samples. Virol J2009;6:140DOIPubMed
  9. Abrahão JSDrumond BPTrindade Gde Sda Silva-Fernandes ATFerreira JMAlves PARapid detection of orthopoxvirus by semi-nested PCR directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories. J Med Virol2010;82:6929DOIPubMed
  10. Ropp SLJin QKnight JCMassung RFEsposito JJPCR strategy for identification and differentiation of small pox and other orthopoxviruses. J Clin Microbiol1995;33:206976 .PubMed
  11. Leite JADrumond BPTrindade GSBonjardim CAFerreira PCKroon EGBrazilian vaccinia virus strains show genetic polymorphism at the ati gene. Virus Genes2007;35:5319DOIPubMed
  12. Thompson JDHiggins DGGibson TJCLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res1994;22:467380DOIPubMed
  13. Damaso CREsposito JJCondit RCMoussatché NAn emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. Virology2000;277:43949DOIPubMed
  14. Trindade GSEmerson GLCarroll DSKroon EGDamon IKBrazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins. Emerg Infect Dis2007;13:96572.DOIPubMed
  15. Drumond BPLeite JAda Fonseca FGBonjardim CAFerreira PCKroon EGBrazilian vaccinia virus strains are genetically divergent and differ from the Lister vaccine strain. Microbes Infect2008;10:18597DOIPubMed



Suggested citation for this article: Abrahão JS, Campos RK, de Souza Trindade G, da Fonseca FG, Peregrino Fereira PC, Kroon EG. Outbreak of severe zoonotic vaccinia virus infection, southeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2015 Apr [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140351
DOI: 10.3201/eid2104.140351

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario