Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Jul;21(7):1191-202. Epub 2012 May 9.
Urinary naphthol metabolites and chromosomal aberrations in 5-year-old children.
Orjuela MA, Liu X, Miller RL, Warburton D, Tang D, Jobanputra V, Hoepner L, Suen IH, Diaz-Carreño S, Li Z, Sjodin A, Perera FP.
SourceCorresponding Author: Manuela A. Orjuela, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Rm 1111, New York, NY 10032. firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND:Exposure to naphthalene, an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)-classified possible carcinogen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is widespread, though resulting health effects are poorly understood. Metabolites of naphthalene, 1- and 2-naphthol, are measurable in urine and are biomarkers of personal exposure. Chromosomal aberrations, including translocations, are established markers of cancer risk and a biodosimeter of clastogenic exposures. Although prenatal (maternal) PAH exposure predicts chromosomal aberrations in cord blood, few studies have examined chromosomal aberrations in school-age children and none has examined their association with metabolites of specific PAHs.
METHODS:Using Whole Chromosome Paint Fluorescent in situ Hybridization, we documented chromosomal aberrations including translocations, in 113 five-year-old urban minority children and examined their association with concurrent concentrations of PAH metabolites measured in urine.
RESULTS:We report that in lymphocytes, the occurrence and frequency of chromosomal aberrations including translocations are associated with levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol. When doubling the levels of urinary naphthols, gender-adjusted OR for chromosomal aberrations are 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.19] and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.02-2.04) for 1- and 2-naphthol, respectively; and for translocations OR = 1.55 (95% CI, 1.11-2.17) and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.20-3.08) for 1- and 2-naphthol, respectively.
CONCLUSION:Our results show that markers of exposure to naphthalene in children are associated with translocations in a dose-related manner, and that naphthalene may be a clastogen. Impact: Indoor exposure to elevated levels of naphthalene is prevalent in large regions of the world. This study is the first to present an association between a marker of naphthalene exposure and a precarcinogenic effect in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(7); 1191-202. ©2012 AACR.
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