Oncolytic herpes simplex virus and immunotherapy
© The Author(s). 2018
- Published: 18 December 2018
Oncolytic viruses have been proposed to be employed as a potential treatment of cancer. Well targeted, they will serve the purpose of cracking tumor cells without causing damage to normal cells. In this category of oncolytic viral drugs human pathogens herpes simplex virus (HSV) is especially suitable for the cause. Although most viral infection causes antiviral reaction in the host, HSV has multiple mechanisms to evade those responses. Powerful anti-tumor effect can thus be achieved via genetic manipulation of the HSV genes involved in this evading mechanism, namely deletions or mutations that adapt its function towards a tumor microenvironment. Currently, oncolytic HSV (oHSV) is widely use in clinical; moreover, there’s hope that its curative effect will be further enhanced through the combination of oHSV with both traditional and emerging therapeutics.
In this review, we provide a summary of the HSV host antiviral response evasion mechanism, HSV expresses immune evasion genes such as ICP34.5, ICP0, Us3, which are involved in inducing and activating host responses, so that the virus can evade the immune system and establish effective long-term latent infection; we outlined details of the oHSV strains generated by removing genes critical to viral replication such as ICP34.5, ICP0, and inserting therapeutic genes such as LacZ, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); security and limitation of some oHSV such G207, 1716, OncoVEX, NV1020, HF10, G47 in clinical application; and the achievements of oHSV combined with immunotherapy and chemotherapy.
We reviewed the immunotherapy mechanism of the oHSV and provided a series of cases. We also pointed out that an in-depth study of the application of oHSV in cancer treatment will potentially benefits cancer patients more.
- Oncolytic herpes simplex virus
- Immune escape
- Genetically engineered
- Oncolytic viral therapy