martes, 11 de diciembre de 2018

Biggest Threats and Data | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC

Biggest Threats and Data | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People

Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. In 2013, CDC published a comprehensive analysis outlining the top 18 antibiotic-resistant threats in the U.S., titled Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 (AR Threats Report). The report sounded the alarm to the danger of antibiotic resistance, stating that each year in the U.S., at least 2 million people get an antibiotic-resistant infection, and at least 23,000 people die.
The report ranked the 18 threats (bacteria and fungi) into three categories based on level of concern to human health—urgent, serious, and concerning—and identified:
  • Minimum estimates of morbidity and mortality from antibiotic-resistant infections
  • People at especially high risk
  • Gaps in knowledge about antibiotic resistance
  • Core actions to prevent infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and slow spread of resistance
  • What CDC was doing at that time to combat the threat of antibiotic resistance
The data below is pulled from the 2013 Threats Report. CDC is working towards releasing an updated AR Threats Report in fall 2019.
AR Threats Report, 2013

Urgent Threats

Serious Threats

Concerning Threats

Urgent Threats

Clostridioides difficile

Medical illustration of C. difficile
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: C. difficile or C. diff, previously Clostridium difficile
About: C. difficile causes life-threatening diarrhea and colitis (an inflammation of the colon), mostly in people who have had both recent medical care and antibiotics
Infections per year: 500,000*
Deaths per year: 15,000*
*Updated data from a 2015 CDC study. This data is not reflected in the AR Threats Report.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

Medical illustration of CRE
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: Nightmare bacteria
About: Some Enterobacteriaceae (a family of germs) are resistant to nearly all antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are often considered the antibiotics of last resort
Drug-resistant infections per year: 9,000
Deaths per year: 600
Learn more: CDC’s CRE website

Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Medical illustration of gonorrhea
Type: Bacteria
About: N. gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea, and has progressively developed resistance to the antibiotic drugs prescribed to treat it
Infections per year: 246,000

Serious Threats

Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter

Medical illustration of acinetobacter
Type: Bacteria
About: People with weakened immune systems, including hospitalized patients, are more at risk of getting an Acinetobacter infection, which is resistant to many commonly prescribed antibiotics
Multidrug-resistant infections per year: 7,300
Deaths per year: 500

Drug-resistant Campylobacter

Medical illustration of campylobacter
Type: Bacteria
Also known as:  Campy
About: Campylobacter usually causes diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, and can spread from animals to people through contaminated food, especially raw or undercooked chicken
Drug-resistance infections per year: 310,000

Fluconazole-resistant Candida

Medical illustration of fluconazole-resistant Candida
Type: Fungus
About: Candida yeasts normally live on skin and mucous membranes without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these microorganisms can cause symptoms to develop
Fluconazole-resistant Candida infections per year: 3,400
Deaths per year: 220

Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae

Medical illustration of E. coli, an example of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: ESBL, or extended-spectrum β-lactamase 
About: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are resistant to strong antibiotics, including extended spectrum cephalosporins
  • ESBL is an enzyme that allows bacteria to become resistant to a wide variety of penicillin and cephalosporin drugs
  • Bacteria that contain this enzyme are known as ESBLs or ESBL-producing 
Drug-resistant infections per year: 26,000 
Deaths per year: 1,700

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)

Medical illustration of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: VRE
About: Enterococci cause a range of illnesses, mostly among patients receiving healthcare
Drug-resistant Enterococcus infections per year: 20,000 
Deaths per year: 1,300

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Medical illustration of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Type: Bacteria
Also known asP. aeruginosa
About: Serious Pseudomonas infections usually occur in people with weakened immune systems, making it a common cause of healthcare-associated infections 
Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas infections per year: 6,700 
Deaths per year: 440

Drug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella

Medical illustration of Drug-resistant non-typhoidal salmonella
Type: Bacteria
  • Non-typhoidal Salmonella includes serotypes (a subdivision of a species) other than Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, and Paratyphi C 
About: Salmonella spreads from animals to people mostly through food, and usually causes diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 
Drug-resistant Salmonella infections per year: 100,000

Drug-resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi

Medical illustration of drug-resistant Sslmonella serotype typhi
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: typhoid fever
About: Salmonella Typhi causes a serious disease called typhoid fever, and is spread by contaminated food and water
Drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi per year: 3,800

Drug-resistant Shigella

Medical illustration of shigella
Type: Bacteria
About: Shigella spreads in feces through direct contact or through contaminated surfaces, food, or water, and  most people infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps
Drug-resistant infections per year: 27,000

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Medical illustration of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: MRSA, resistant staph (short for Staphylococcus), resistant S. aureus
About: MRSA is S. aureus that has become resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams, including methicillin
  • Patients in healthcare settings frequently get severe or potentially life-threatening infections, and people can also get MRSA in their community
Severe MRSA infections per year: 80,461 
Deaths per year: 11,285 

Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

Medical illustration of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: S. pneumoniapneumococcus
About: S. pneumoniae causes pneumococcal disease, which can range from ear and sinus infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections 
Drug-resistant infections per year: 1.2 million 
Hospitalizations per year: over 19,000 
Deaths per year: 7,000 

Drug-resistant Tuberculosis

Medical illustration of tuberculosis
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: TB, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)
About: TB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosis, and is among the most common infectious diseases and a frequent cause of death worldwide 
Drug-resistant TB cases in 2011: 1,042 
Learn more: CDC’s TB website

Concerning Threats

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA)

Medical illustration of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: VRSA, resistant staph (short for Staphylococcus), resistant S. aureus
About: VRSA is S. aureus that has become resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin, the antibiotic most frequently used to treat serious S. aureus infections 
Cases 2002-2013: 13 in 4 states 

Erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococcus

Medical illustration of erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococcus
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: resistant group A strep, GAS 
About: Group A strep can cause many different infections that range from minor illnesses to very serious and deadly diseases, including strep throat, scarlet fever, and others 
Drug-resistant infections per year: 1,300 
Deaths per year: 160 
Learn more: CDC’s GAS website

Clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus

Medical illustration of clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus
Type: Bacteria
Also known as: resistant group B strep, GBS
About: Group B strep can cause severe illness in people of all ages 
Drug-resistant infections per year: 7,600 
Deaths per year: 440 
Learn more: CDC’s GBS website

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