miércoles, 8 de marzo de 2017

RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence - American Journal of Preventive Medicine

RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence - American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Ending violence one green dot at a time

new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine shows communities may be able to prevent sexual and dating violence with the use of Green Dot bystander-intervention program.
Green Dot teaches individuals how to speak up or step in when they see harassment, bullying, or abuse. Over five years, the study looked at the impact of Green Dot in 26 Kentucky High Schools. Researchers found a reduction in sexual violence and dating violence among students following program implementation.
These findings are among the first to identify an effective bystander intervention for preventing sexual and dating violence among teens.
Implications for Prevention
Giving educators extensive training and continuous feedback throughout program implementation, as well as training Rape Crisis Center educators as both advocates and prevention educators, may strengthen the effectiveness of approaches to prevent sexual and dating violence.
Further studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of bystander interventions like Green Dot in other settings and with other populations.
Spread the Word
  • Facebook: According to a new study of the Green Dot program, sexual & dating violence can be prevented by teaching students how to speak up & step in to help as active bystanders when they see harassment, bullying, or abuse. Learn more: bit.ly/2mXxi3G
  • Twitter: New: sexual & dating violence can be prevented by teaching students to speak up & step in when harassment or abuse are seen. bit.ly/2mXxi3G
Learn More


Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years.


A cluster RCT was conducted.


Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions.


Green Dot−trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1.

Main outcome measures

The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided.


A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014–2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition−time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition−time, p<0.001) and victimization (condition−time, p<0.001) were different over time. During Years 3–4, when Green Dot was fully implemented, the mean number of sexual violent events prevented by the intervention was 120 in Intervention Year 3 and 88 in Year 4. For Year 3, prevalence rate ratios for sexual violence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization.


Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization.

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