MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for September 24, 2015
Unreported Male Sex Partners Among Men with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection — North Carolina, 2011–2013
A CDC analysis of newly diagnosed HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in North Carolina found that men did not always report male sex partners at the time of HIV testing. Researchers assessed HIV-related risk behaviors, such as partner gender and number of sex partners, among 179 men who have sex with men (MSM) newly diagnosed with HIV who were participating in the STOP project. Recruited from three STD clinics in North Carolina, participants were asked about their sex partners on two occasions, during pre-test counseling and during a partner services interview after diagnosis. Of the 113 HIV-infected men (median age of 24 years, 85 percent black) that reported having male sex partners during partner services interviews (after being diagnosed with HIV infection), about one-quarter of those (26 men, or 23 percent) had not reported male sex partners at the time of initial HIV testing. Compared with MSM who reported male sex partners at the time of testing, those who did not had a similar number of male sex partners, but were more likely to also have at least one female sex partner. The study suggests that men in some settings may under-report male sex partners, which means that novel strategies are needed to accurately assess their risk. Accurately reporting risk behaviors allows health care providers and public health officials to better understand risk in the community and offer appropriate HIV prevention services, such as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), to those at risk.
Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 2011–2013
One in 10 women aged 18-44 years consumes alcohol during pregnancy, putting her baby at risk of physical and behavioral problems known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other pregnancy problems such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity. Women who are pregnant or who might be pregnant should avoid drinking alcohol because there is no known safe amount, no safe time, and no safe type of alcohol to drink during pregnancy. One in 10 (10.2 percent ) pregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States reports drinking alcohol in the past 30 days and 3.1 percent (1 in 33) reports binge drinking – defined as 4 or more alcoholic beverages on one occasion. Using the 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, the study also found that among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes respectively). Healthcare professionals can help reduce alcohol consumption among pregnant and nonpregnant women who misuse alcohol by implementing alcohol screening and brief intervention in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption when they are pregnant or might be pregnant.
Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity — United States, 2013
One in five U.S. adults are eligible to receive intensive behavioral counseling for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and do not meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. Health care professionals have a role in counseling patients about physical activity, which can help prevent CVD among persons with risk factors. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended in August 2014 that obese and overweight adults with additional CVD risk factors be offered or referred to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity. An estimated 36.8 percent of U.S. adults are eligible for intensive behavioral counseling for CVD prevention. Among U.S. states and DC, the prevalence of eligibility ranged from 29.0 percent to 44.6 percent. Nationwide, approximately 19.9 percent of U.S. adults were eligible and did not meet the current guideline for aerobic physical activity. The ACA’s preventive services mandate might facilitate the implementation of this intervention.
Global Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination — 2000–2014
To reach achieve the global immunization goals for rubella elimination, countries should follow the WHO recommendations to introduce rubella-containing vaccine, strengthen routine immunization services and improve surveillance. Since 200, there has been significant progress in reducing the morbidity and mortality of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The global immunization goals for rubella and CRS are defined in the Global Vaccine Action Plan to eliminate rubella in five of the six WHO regions by 2020. In the past two years, eight countries have joined the 132 countries with rubella-containing vaccine in their national immunization schedules. While more children have the opportunity for protection against rubella, countries have decreased their reporting of rubella to WHO, suggesting less attention being given to rubella control. To reach our global rubella-elimination goals, countries should introduce rubella containing vaccine into their national schedules according to WHO recommendations. Rubella and CRS surveillance needs to be strengthened to ensure that progress toward elimination can be measured.
Notes from the Field:
Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Delaware, 2015